06 May 2014 In General Health

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION: The promotion of Mediterranean Diets has generated some doubts, because of the concern that its high fat content might lead to the development of obesity. METHODS: Longitudinal analysis of 6319 participants in the SUN cohort study. We used a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (136 items). Baseline adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) was assessed using a score (score_1) including vegetables, fruits, cereals, nuts, pulses, fish, olive oil and moderate consumption of red wine (positively weighted), whereas meat and dairy products were negatively weighted. We assessed the association between the overall baseline adherence to the MDP (score_1) and subsequent weight change after 28 months of follow-up. We also built another score (score_2) to assess changes in diet during follow-up and appraised the association between the joint exposure to both scores and weight change during follow-up. RESULTS: Participants in the first quartile of score_1 (lowest baseline adherence to MDP) showed a higher weight gain (+0.73 kg) than those in the top quartile (+0.45 kg). The results indicated an inverse dose-response relationship (P for trend = 0.016). A similar inverse association was apparent when we used change in adherence to the MDP (score_2). However, both inverse associations did not remain statistically significant after adjusting for relevant confounders. Consumption of dairy products was inversely associated with weight gain. CONCLUSIONS: Although participants increased their average weight during the follow-up period, weight increments were smaller among those with a higher adherence to an 'a priori' defined MDP. Results did not remain statistically significant after multivariate adjustment.

 

 

 

06 May 2014 In General Health

 

 

 

Given the lack of consistent evidence of the relationship between Mediterranean dietary patterns and body fat, we assessed the cross-sectional association between adherence to a modified Mediterranean diet, BMI, and waist circumference (WC). A total of 497,308 individuals (70.7% women) aged 25-70 y from 10 European countries participated in this study. Diet was assessed at baseline using detailed validated country-specific questionnaires, and anthropometrical measurements were collected using standardized procedures. The association between the degree of adherence to the modified-Mediterranean Diet Score (mMDS) (including high consumption of vegetables, legumes, fruits and nuts, cereals, fish and seafood, and unsaturated:saturated fatty acids ratio; moderate alcohol intake; and low consumption of meat and meat products and dairy products) and BMI (kg.m(-2)) or WC (cm) was modeled through mixed-effects linear regression, controlling for potential confounders. Overall, the mMDS was not significantly associated with BMI. Higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet was significantly associated with lower WC, for a given BMI, in both men (-0.09; 95% CI -0.14 to -0.04) and women (-0.06; 95% CI -0.10 to -0.01). The association was stronger in men (-0.20; 95% CI -0.23 to -0.17) and women (-0.17; 95% CI -0.21 to -0.13) from Northern European countries. Despite the observed heterogeneity among regions, results of this study suggest that adherence to a modified Mediterranean diet, high in foods of vegetable origin and unsaturated fatty acids, is associated with lower abdominal adiposity measured by WC in European men and women.

 

 

 

06 May 2014 In General Health

 

 

 

OBJECTIVE: Assessment of relation between metabolic syndrome (MS) and Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. ATP III definition of MS was used. Adherence to MD was assessed with a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Intakes of cereal, fruit, legumes, vegetables, fish, nuts, monounsaturated to saturated ratio, alcohol from red wine, whole-fat dairy products and red meat were considered. SETTING: Representative sample of population from the Canary Islands (Spain) participating in the Canarian Nutrition Survey (ENCA). SUBJECTS: 578 adults>18 years. RESULTS: Of the subjects, 24.4% presented MS. Once adjusted, MD adherence was not related to MS prevalence, but subjects in the third tertile of adherence presented 70% lower prevalence of the blood pressure criteria and 2.5 times more prevalence of the glycaemia criteria with respect to the first tertile. Red meat intake was associated with higher prevalence of blood pressure criteria. Moderate alcohol intake from red wine was associated with lower prevalence of these criteria in women and lower prevalence of HDL cholesterol criteria in men. Fruit intake showed a protective effect on triglyceride criteria, whereas vegetable intake was associated with higher prevalence of this criterion. Cereals' intake showed a protective effect over insulin resistance measured by high insulinaemia level. Fruit intake showed a significative protective effect over high Homeostasis Model Assessment index. Whole-fat dairy products showed a significant protective effect on the glycaemia criteria. High monounsaturated to saturated fatty acid intake showed a protective effect on insulin resistance. CONCLUSIONS: Some components of the MD showed a protective effect on the MS and its components.

 

 

 

06 May 2014 In Cardiovascular System

CONTEXT: The lifetime risk of heart failure at age 40 years is approximately 1 in 5 in the general population; however, little is known about the association between modifiable lifestyle factors and the remaining lifetime risk of heart failure.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between modifiable lifestyle factors and the lifetime risk of heart failure in a large cohort of men.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Prospective cohort study using data from 20,900 men (mean age at baseline, 53.6 years) from the Physicians' Health Study I (1982-2008) who were apparently healthy at baseline. Six modifiable lifestyle factors were assessed: body weight, smoking, exercise, alcohol intake, consumption of breakfast cereals, and consumption of fruits and vegetables.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Lifetime risk of heart failure.

RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 22.4 years, 1200 men developed heart failure. Overall, the lifetime risk of heart failure was 13.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 12.9%-14.7%) at age 40 years. Lifetime risk remained constant in men who survived free of heart failure through age 70 years and reached 10.6% (95% CI, 9.4%-11.7%) at age 80 years. Lifetime risk of heart failure was higher in men with hypertension than in those without hypertension. Healthy lifestyle habits (normal body weight, not smoking, regular exercise, moderate alcohol intake, consumption of breakfast cereals, and consumption of fruits and vegetables) were individually and jointly associated with a lower lifetime risk of heart failure, with the highest risk in men adhering to none of the 6 lifestyle factors (21.2%; 95% CI, 16.8%-25.6%) and the lowest risk in men adhering to 4 or more desirable factors (10.1%; 95% CI, 7.9%-12.3%).

CONCLUSION: In this cohort of apparently healthy men, adherence to healthy lifestyle factors is associated with a lower lifetime risk of heart failure.

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