06 May 2014 In Cardiovascular System

The cardiovascular benefits of light to moderate red wine consumption often have been attributed to its polyphenol constituents. However, the acute dose-related hemodynamic, vasodilator, and sympathetic neural effects of ethanol and red wine have not been characterized and compared in the same individual. We sought to test the hypotheses that responses to one and two alcoholic drinks differ and that red wine with high polyphenol content elicits a greater effect than ethanol alone. Thirteen volunteers (24-47 yr; 7 men, 6 women) drank wine, ethanol, and water in a randomized, single-blind trial on three occasions 2 wk apart. One drink of wine and ethanol increased blood alcohol to 38 +/- 2 and 39 +/- 2 mg/dl, respectively, and two drinks to 72 +/- 4 and 83 +/- 3 mg/dl, respectively. Wine quadrupled plasma resveratrol (P < 0.001) and increased catechin (P < 0.03). No intervention affected blood pressure. One drink had no heart rate effect, but two drinks of wine increased heart rate by 5.7 +/- 1.6 beats/min; P < 0.001). Cardiac output fell 0.8 +/- 0.3 l/min after one drink of ethanol and wine (both P < 0.02) but increased after two drinks of ethanol (+0.8 +/- 0.3 l/min) and wine (+1.2 +/- 0.3 l/min) (P < 0.01). One alcoholic drink did not alter muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), while two drinks increased MSNA by 9-10 bursts/min (P < 0.001). Brachial artery diameter increased after both one and two alcoholic drinks (P < 0.001). No beverage augmented, and the second wine dose attenuated (P = 0.02), flow-mediated vasodilation. One drink of ethanol dilates the brachial artery without activating sympathetic outflow, whereas two drinks increase MSNA, heart rate, and cardiac output. These acute effects, which exhibit a narrow dose response, are not modified by red wine polyphenols.

06 May 2014 In Cancer

 

 

 

Studies of the association between polyphenols dietary intake and breast cancer risk have been limited due to the lack of detailed food composition tables. In addition, none has examined this association according to alcohol intake, despite the facts that alcohol is an established risk factor for breast cancer and that the contribution of alcoholic beverages to polyphenol intake varies according to the level of alcohol consumption. Our objectives were (1) to estimate the associations between breast cancer risk and a wide range of dietary polyphenols using the recently published Phenol-Explorer database; and (2) to evaluate if/how alcohol intake modulates these relationships. 4,141 women from the SU.VI.MAX prospective cohort were followed from 1994 to 2007 (median followup: 12.6 years); 152 developed a first incident invasive primary breast cancer. Dietary intakes were assessed by repeated 24-h records. The Phenol-Explorer database was used to estimate polyphenol intake. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for quartiles of polyphenol intake. Analyses were stratified by median alcohol intake (< vs. >/= 6.5 g/d). In non-to-low alcohol drinkers, intakes of some classes of polyphenols were associated with decreased breast cancer risk: hydroxybenzoic acids (HR(Q4vsQ1) = 0.38, 95 % CI: 0.17-0.86, P (trend) = 0.005), flavonoids (0.35, 0.17-0.75, P (trend) = 0.02), flavonols (0.36, 0.18-0.74, P (trend) = 0.002), catechins (0.48, 0.22-1.05, P (trend) = 0.02), theaflavins (0.42, 0.19-0.93, P (trend) = 0.02), and proanthocyanidins (0.39, 0.18-0.84, P (trend) = 0.02). In contrast, in women with higher alcohol use, intakes of hydroxybenzoic acids (2.28, 1.16-4.49, P (trend) = 0.04), flavonoids (2.46, 1.23-4.92, P (trend) = 0.01), anthocyanins (2.94, 1.32-6.53, P (trend) = 0.01), catechins (2.28, 1.19-4.36, P (trend) = 0.02), and proanthocyanidins (2.98, 1.40-6.33, P (trend) = 0.006) were associated with increased breast cancer risk. In conclusion, this prospective study suggests that several classes of polyphenols could potentially contribute to breast cancer prevention among non-to-low alcohol drinkers, but some may increase breast cancer risk among women with higher alcohol intake.

 

 

 

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