04 December 2014 In Phenolic compounds

Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a natural polyphenolic compound that exists in Polygonum cuspidatum, grapes, peanuts and berries, as well as their manufactured products, especially red wine. Resveratrol is a pharmacologically active compound that interacts with multiple targets in a variety of cardiovascular disease models to exert protective effects or induce a reduction in cardiovascular risks parameters. This review attempts to primarily serve to summarize the current research findings regarding the putative cardioprotective effects of resveratrol and the molecular pathways underlying these effects. One intent is to hopefully provide a relatively comprehensive resource for clues that may prompt ideas for additional mechanistic studies which might further elucidate and strengthen the role of the stilbene family of compounds in cardiovascular disease and cardioprotection. Model systems that incorporate a significant functional association with tissues outside of the cardiovascular system proper, such as adipose (cell culture, obesity models) and pancreatic (diabetes) tissues, were reviewed, and the molecular pathways and/or targets related to these models and influenced by resveratrol are discussed. Because the body of work encompassing the stilbenes and other phytochemicals in the context of longevity and the ability to presumably mitigate a plethora of afflictions is replete with conflicting information and controversy, especially so with respect to the human response, we tried to remain as neutral as possible in compiling and presenting the more current data with minimal commentary, permitting the reader free reign to extract the knowledge most helpful to their own investigations.

04 December 2014 In Cardiovascular System

Excessive alcohol consumption is associated with increased morbidity and mortality as well as with labour and traffic accidents. However, current evidence suggests beneficial effects of moderate drinking on cardiovascular events including coronary heart disease, ischaemic stroke, peripheral arterial disease and congestive heart failure. The underlying mechanisms to explain these protective effects against coronary heart disease include an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and an increase in insulin sensitivity, and a decrease in platelet aggregation and circulating concentrations of fibrinogen. However, there are discrepancies regarding the specific effects of different types of beverages on the cardiovascular system, and also whether the possible protective effects of alcoholic beverages are due to their alcohol component (ethanol) or non-alcoholic products containing, mainly polyphenols. Recent randomised clinical trials have shown that wine, a polyphenol-rich alcoholic beverage, provides higher antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects than some spirits such as gin, a polyphenol-free alcoholic beverage. In addition, dealcoholized red wine decreases blood pressure through a nitric oxide mediated mechanism, suggesting a protective effect of polyphenols on vascular function. Other studies performed in women have observed that daily doses of 15-20 g of alcohol as red wine are sufficient to elicit protective effects similar to those observed in men who consumed higher doses of wine. In conclusion, moderate consumption of wine exerts a protective effect on biomarkers related to the progression and development of atherosclerosis due to its alcoholic (ethanol) and non-alcoholic (polyphenols) content. Women are more sensitive to the beneficial effects of wine.

06 May 2014 In General Health

 

 

 

Investigations into the relation between wine consumption and kidney disease have been limited. Patients with chronic renal failure show accelerated atherosclerotic damage and, considering the well-known protective effect of wine on the cardiovascular system, moderate wine consumption might be advantageous. Oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction, which are inter-related, play a role in the pathophysiology of many renal diseases, including acute and chronic renal failure. Ethanol and non-alcoholic wine components, especially polyphenols, influence oxidative balance and endothelial function. Although long-term alcohol abuse has been associated with many renal alterations in humans, in experimental studies wine polyphenols enhanced kidney antioxidant defenses, exerted protective effects against renal ischemia/reperfusion injury, and inhibited apoptosis of mesangial cells. Moreover, in diabetic patients the administration of moderate amounts of red wine and a polyphenol-enriched diet slowed the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Moreover, the unfavorable effect of ethanol on blood pressure control seems to be counterbalanced by polyphenol protective effects. There is convincing evidence of a beneficial effect of controlled wine consumption patients with renal disease, but controlled clinical trials are needed to confirm this hypothesis.

 

 

 

06 May 2014 In Diabetes

Investigations into the relation between wine consumption and kidney disease have been limited. Patients with chronic renal failure show accelerated atherosclerotic damage and, considering the well-known protective effect of wine on the cardiovascular system, moderate wine consumption might be advantageous. Oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction, which are inter-related, play a role in the pathophysiology of many renal diseases, including acute and chronic renal failure. Ethanol and non-alcoholic wine components, especially polyphenols, influence oxidative balance and endothelial function. Although long-term alcohol abuse has been associated with many renal alterations in humans, in experimental studies wine polyphenols enhanced kidney antioxidant defenses, exerted protective effects against renal ischemia/reperfusion injury, and inhibited apoptosis of mesangial cells. Moreover, in diabetic patients the administration of moderate amounts of red wine and a polyphenol-enriched diet slowed the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Moreover, the unfavorable effect of ethanol on blood pressure control seems to be counterbalanced by polyphenol protective effects. There is convincing evidence of a beneficial effect of controlled wine consumption patients with renal disease, but controlled clinical trials are needed to confirm this hypothesis.

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