06 May 2014 In Cancer




BACKGROUND: We reviewed epidemiological studies on alcohol drinking and breast cancer among the Japanese population. This report is one among a series of articles by our research group evaluating the existing evidence concerning the association between health-related lifestyles and cancer.

METHODS: Original data were obtained from MEDLINE searches using PubMed or from searches of the Ichushi database, complemented with manual searches. Evaluation of associations was based on the strength of evidence and the magnitude of association, together with biological plausibility as previously evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer.

RESULTS: Three cohort studies and eight case-control studies were identified. There were inconsistent results regarding alcohol drinking and breast cancer risk among cohort studies. A significant positive association was observed in one, but another showed nonsignificant inverse association. Out of the eight case-control studies, two studies showed a significantly increased risk among women who drink daily and who had higher intake of alcohol, respectively. Experimental studies have supported the biological plausibility of a positive association between alcohol drinking and breast cancer risk.

CONCLUSION: We conclude that epidemiologic evidence on the association between alcohol drinking and breast cancer risk remains insufficient in terms of both the number and methodological quality of studies among the Japanese population.




06 May 2014 In Cancer




PURPOSE: Given the high cost and side effects of radioprotective agents such as amifostine, attention has been focused on potentially equally effective but less expensive and toxic natural substances. We evaluated the potential radioprotective effects of wine in preventing skin toxicity in patients with breast cancer.

METHODS AND MATERIALS: Before treatment, the medical history and habits of patients were assessed and the information recorded in their clinical folders. Patients were divided into three groups based on the dose/fractionation scheme used: control group, 60.4 Gy (standard technique); Modulated Accelerated Radiotherapy in Adjuvant treatment of breast cancer (MARA)-1 protocol group, 44 Gy (concomitant boost to tumoral bed); and MARA-2 protocol group, 60 Gy (concomitant boost to tumoral bed). The impact of the following variables on acute skin toxicity was evaluated by chart review: radiotherapy protocol, planning target volume (PTV), comorbidity (e.g., hypertension and diabetes), hemoglobin level before therapy, adjuvant hormone therapy, adjuvant chemotherapy, cigarette smoking, and drinking habits.

RESULTS: The study population consisted of 348 patients. More severe skin toxicity was significantly associated with the radiotherapy protocol (p < 0.001) and median PTV (p = 0.005). In addition, the incidence of acute toxicity of Grade 2 or greater was higher in patients without alcohol intake (38.4% vs. 22.3%, p = 0.021). The daily amount of alcohol intake also influenced the incidence of skin toxicity, with an incidence of 38.4% in patients with no wine intake, 31.8% in patients drinking half a glass per day, 13.6% in patients drinking one glass per day, and 35.0% in patients drinking two glasses per day. Multivariate analysis showed that wine intake, PTV, and radiotherapy protocol were all significantly correlated with acute toxicity.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that wine may have a radioprotective effect; however, prospective studies are needed to confirm this beneficial effect of wine and its components.




06 May 2014 In Cancer




OBJECTIVES: To examine the combined effect of alcohol and folate intake during adolescence on the risk of proliferative benign breast disease (BBD).

METHODS: We used data from 29 117 women in the Nurses' Health Study II who completed both adolescent alcohol consumption questions in 1989 and an adolescent diet questionnaire in 1998. A total of 659 women with proliferative BBD diagnosed between 1991 and 2001 were confirmed by central pathology review. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for established risk factors of breast cancer.

RESULTS: Adolescent alcohol consumption was dose-dependently associated with an increased risk of proliferative BBD (hazard ratio = 1.15 per 10 g/day consumption; 95% CI, 1.03-1.28). There was no significant association between adolescent folate intake and the risk of proliferative BBD. Stratified analyses showed that each 10-g/day alcohol intake during adolescence was associated with a 21% (95% CI, 1.01-1.45) increase in the risk of proliferative BBD among women with low folate intake during adolescence, which was not significantly different from the alcohol-associated risk among women with moderate and high folate intake during adolescence (P for interaction = 0.18).

CONCLUSIONS: Adolescent alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of proliferative BBD, which may not be reduced by increased folate intake during adolescence.




06 May 2014 In Cancer




BACKGROUND: Adult alcohol consumption during the previous year is related to breast cancer risk. Breast tissue is particularly susceptible to carcinogens between menarche and first full-term pregnancy. No study has characterized the contribution of alcohol consumption during this interval to risks of proliferative benign breast disease (BBD) and breast cancer.

METHODS: We used data from 91005 parous women in the Nurses' Health Study II who had no cancer history, completed questions on early alcohol consumption in 1989, and were followed through June 30, 2009, to analyze breast cancer risk. A subset of 60093 women who had no history of BBD or cancer in 1991 and were followed through June 30, 2001, were included in the analysis of proliferative BBD. Relative risks (RRs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression.

RESULTS: We identified 1609 breast cancer cases and 970 proliferative BBD cases confirmed by central histology review. Alcohol consumption between menarche and first pregnancy, adjusted for drinking after first pregnancy, was associated with risks of breast cancer (RR = 1.11 per 10g/day intake; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.00 to 1.23) and proliferative BBD (RR = 1.16 per 10g/day intake; 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.32). Drinking after first pregnancy had a similar risk for breast cancer (RR = 1.09 per 10g/day intake; 95% CI = 0.96 to 1.23) but not for BBD. The association between drinking before first pregnancy and breast neoplasia appeared to be stronger with longer menarche to first pregnancy intervals.

CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol consumption before first pregnancy was consistently associated with increased risks of proliferative BBD and breast cancer.




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