06 May 2014 In Cancer
BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption has been comprehensively investigated as an etiologic risk factor for breast cancer but has received little attention in terms of its effect on prognosis after breast cancer, particularly for young women. METHODS: 1,286 women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer at age 0 to
06 May 2014 In Cancer

 

 

 

Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. While alcohol intake has been associated with increased breast cancer risk, the association between alcohol consumption and mammographic density is not clear. We assessed the association between alcohol consumption and mammographic density among women who participated in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program in 2004. Mammographic density was assessed on digitized mammograms from 2,251 postmenopausal women aged 50-69 years, using a computer assisted method. Current intake of beer, wine (red and white), and liquor was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Non-drinkers were defined as complete abstainers (i.e., those who reported no intake of any type of alcohol). We used multivariate linear regression models to estimate least square means of percent mammographic density by categories of alcohol intake with adjustment for potential confounders. We also checked for possible effect modification by stratifying the analyses by age, body mass index, and hormone therapy. The mean percent mammographic density was almost similar for drinkers 18.3% (95% CI: 17.6-18.9%) and non-drinkers 17.8% (95% CI: 16.1-19.4%) (P = 0.59). There was no indication that amount of alcohol consumed was associated with percent mammographic density, with a mean percent density among women with the highest intake (>90 g of alcohol per week) of 18.2% (95% CI: 16.9-19.0%), only slightly different from that of non-drinkers 18.3% (17.3-19.6%) (P for trend = 0.99). There was no association between any type of alcohol consumed and mammographic density.There was no effect modification by body mass index, age, or hormone therapy use. We found no evidence of an association between alcohol intake and percent mammographic density.

 

 

 

06 May 2014 In Cancer

 

 

 

The first behavioral aspect of mankind that has been commonly acknowledged as one of the main reasons for neoplasms is lifestyle. The specified lifestyle determines the exposure to the variety of carcinogens, whose crucial role in carcinogenesis is doubtless. The purpose of this study was to analyze women's lifestyle and its influence on the risk of developing breast cancer and benign tumors. The participants of the study were healthy women with no changes in mammary glands and women with diagnosed breast cancer or benign tumor. The total number of participants was 555 females aged 35-70 years. Every patient voluntarily filled in an anonymous questionnaire consisting of questions about socioeconomic conditions, number of cigarettes/daily, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. Proper education concerning a healthy lifestyle can positively contribute to a reduction in breast cancer. A high value of BMI, especially in the postmenopausal period, is a negative predictive factor increasing the risk of breast cancer. Physical activity decreases the risk of breast cancer. No such relation concerning smoking cigarettes has been proven.

 

 

 

06 May 2014 In Cancer

 

 

 

This review focuses on selected aspects of the relation between alcohol consumption and cancer risk. Heavy alcohol consumption (i.e., >/=4 drinks/day) is significantly associated with an increased risk of about 5-fold for oral and pharyngeal cancer and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, 2.5-fold for laryngeal cancer, 50% for colorectal and breast cancers, and 30% for pancreatic cancer. These estimates are based on a large number of epidemiological studies and are generally consistent across strata of several covariates. The evidence suggests that at low doses of alcohol consumption (i.e., </=1 drink/day) the risk is also increased by about 20% for oral and pharyngeal cancer and 30% for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Thus, for these sites there is little evidence of a threshold effect. While consumption of fewer than 3 alcoholic drinks/wk is not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, an intake of 3 to 6 drinks/wk might already yield a (small) increase in risk. On the other hand, intakes up to 1 drink/day are not associated to the risk of laryngeal, colorectal, and pancreatic cancer. The positive association between alcohol consumption and the risk of head and neck cancers is independent from tobacco exposure.

 

 

 

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