22 March 2016 In Cancer

Although alcohol intake is an established risk factor for overall breast cancer, few studies have looked at the relationship between alcohol use and breast cancer risk by the four major subtypes of breast cancer and very few data exist in the alcohol-breast cancer relationship in Spanish women. A population-based case-control study was conducted in Galicia, Spain. A total of 1766 women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 1997 and 2014 and 833 controls participated in the study. Data on demographics, breast cancer risk factors, and clinico-pathological characteristics were collected. We examined the alcohol-breast cancer association according to the major breast cancer subtypes [hormone-receptor-positive, HER2-negative (luminal A); hormone-receptor-positive, HER2-positive (luminal B); hormone-receptor-negative, HER2-negative (TNBC); and hormone-receptor-negative, HER2-positive (HER2 overexpressing)] as well as grade and morphology in Spanish women. With the exception of HER2 overexpressing, the risk of all subtypes of breast cancer significantly increased with increasing alcohol intake. The association was similar for hormonal receptor positive breast cancer, i.e., luminal A and luminal B breast cancer (odds ratio, OR 2.16, 95 % confidence interval, CI 1.55-3.02; and OR 1.98, 95 % CI 1.11-3.53, respectively), and for TNBC (TNBC: OR 1.93, 95 % CI 1.07-3.47). The alcohol-breast cancer association was slightly more pronounced among lobular breast cancer (OR 2.76, 95 % CI 1.62-4.69) than among ductal type breast cancers (OR 2.21, 95 % CI 1.61-3.03). In addition, significant associations were shown for all grades, I, II and III breast cancer (OR 1.98, 95 % CI 1.26-3.10; OR 2.34, 95 % CI 1.66-3.31; and OR 2.16, 95 % CI 1.44-3.25 for Grades I, II and III, respectively). To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the association of breast cancer subtypes and alcohol intake in Spanish women. Our findings indicate that breast cancer risk increased with increasing alcohol intakes for three out of the four major subtypes of breast cancer. The association was similar for hormonal receptor positive breast cancer, i.e., luminal A and luminal B breast cancer, and for TNBC. The association seemed to be slightly more pronounced for lobular than ductal breast cancers. No differences were detected by grade.

22 March 2016 In Cancer

PURPOSE: Moderate alcohol consumption (15 g/day) has been consistently associated with increased breast cancer risk; however, the association between alcohol and mammographic density, a strong marker of breast cancer risk, has been less consistent. Less is known about the effect of patterns of alcohol intake across the lifecourse.

METHODS: Using the Early Determinants of Mammographic Density study, an adult follow-up of women born in two US birth cohorts (n = 697; Collaborative Perinatal Project in Boston and Providence sites and the Childhood Health and Development Studies in California), we examined the association between alcohol intake in early adulthood (ages 20-29 years) and at time of interview and mammographic density (percent density and total dense area). We report the difference between nondrinkers and three levels of alcohol intake. We considered confounding by age at mammogram, body mass index, geographic site, race/ethnicity, and reproductive characteristics.

RESULTS: Seventy-nine percent of women reported ever consuming alcohol. Compared to nondrinkers in early adulthood, we observed an inverse association between >7 servings/week and percent density in fully adjusted models (beta = -5.1, 95 % CI -8.7, -1.5; p for trend = <0.01). Associations with dense area were inverse for the highest category of drinking in early adulthood but not statistically significant (p for trend = 0.15). Compared to noncurrent drinkers, the association for current intake of >7 servings/week and percent density was also inverse (beta = -3.1, 95 % CI -7.0, 0.8; p for trend = 0.01). In contrast, moderate alcohol intake (>0-</=7 servings/week) in either time period was positively associated with dense area; but associations were not statistically significant in fully adjusted models.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study does not lend support to the hypothesis that the positive association between alcohol intake and breast cancer risk is through increasing mammographic density

24 February 2016 In Cancer

BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence on the association between dietary folate intake and the risk of breast cancer (BC) by hormone receptor expression in the tumors. We investigated the relationship between dietary folate and BC risk using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

METHODS: A total of 367993 women age 35 to 70 years were recruited in 10 European countries. During a median follow-up of 11.5 years, 11575 women with BC were identified. Dietary folate intake was estimated from country-specific dietary questionnaires. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to quantify the association between dietary variables and BC risk. BC tumors were classified by receptor status. Subgroup analyses were performed by menopausal status and alcohol intake. Intake of other B vitamins was considered. All statistical tests were two-sided.

RESULTS: A borderline inverse association was observed between dietary folate and BC risk (hazard ratio comparing top vs bottom quintile [HRQ5-Q1] = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.83 to 1.01, P trend = .037). In premenopausal women, we observed a statistically significant trend towards lower risk in estrogen receptor-negative BC (HRQ5-Q1 = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.45 to 0.96, P trend = .042) and progesterone receptor-negative BC (HRQ5-Q1 = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.51 to 0.97, P trend = .021). No associations were found in postmenopausal women. A 14% reduction in BC risk was observed when comparing the highest with the lowest dietary folate tertiles in women having a high (>12 alcoholic drinks/week) alcohol intake (HRT3-T1 = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.75 to 0.98, P interaction = .035).

CONCLUSIONS: Higher dietary folate intake may be associated with a lower risk of sex hormone receptor-negative BC in premenopausal women.

24 February 2016 In Cancer

IMPORTANCE: Breast cancer is the leading cause of female cancer burden, and its incidence has increased by more than 20% worldwide since 2008. Some observational studies have suggested that the Mediterranean diet may reduce the risk of breast cancer.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of 2 interventions with Mediterranean diet vs the advice to follow a low-fat diet (control) on breast cancer incidence.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The PREDIMED study is a 1:1:1 randomized, single-blind, controlled field trial conducted at primary health care centers in Spain. From 2003 to 2009, 4282 women aged 60 to 80 years and at high cardiovascular disease risk were recruited after invitation by their primary care physicians.

INTERVENTIONS: Participants were randomly allocated to a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil, a Mediterranean diet supplemented with mixed nuts, or a control diet (advice to reduce dietary fat).

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Breast cancer incidence was a prespecified secondary outcome of the trial for women without a prior history of breast cancer (n = 4152).

RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 4.8 years, we identified 35 confirmed incident cases of breast cancer. Observed rates (per 1000 person-years) were 1.1 for the Mediterranean diet with extra-virgin olive oil group, 1.8 for the Mediterranean diet with nuts group, and 2.9 for the control group. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios vs the control group were 0.32 (95% CI, 0.13-0.79) for the Mediterranean diet with extra-virgin olive oil group and 0.59 (95% CI, 0.26-1.35) for the Mediterranean diet with nuts group. In analyses with yearly cumulative updated dietary exposures, the hazard ratio for each additional 5% of calories from extra-virgin olive oil was 0.72 (95% CI, 0.57-0.90).

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This is the first randomized trial finding an effect of a long-term dietary intervention on breast cancer incidence. Our results suggest a beneficial effect of a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil in the primary prevention of breast cancer. These results come from a secondary analysis of a previous trial and are based on few incident cases and, therefore, need to be confirmed in longer-term and larger studies.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN.org Identifier: ISRCTN35739639

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