06 May 2014 In Cancer

 

 

 

Epidemiologic studies indicate that moderate alcohol consumption increases breast cancer risk in women. Understanding the mechanistic basis of this relationship has important implications for women's health and breast cancer prevention. In this commentary, we focus on some recent epidemiologic studies linking moderate alcohol consumption to breast cancer risk and place the results of those studies within the framework of our current understanding of the temporal and mechanistic basis of human carcinogenesis. This analysis supports the hypothesis that alcohol acts as a weak cumulative breast carcinogen and may also be a tumor promoter. We discuss the implications of these mechanisms for the prevention and treatment of alcohol-related breast cancer and present some considerations for future studies. Moderate alcohol consumption has been shown to benefit cardiovascular health and recently been associated with healthy aging. Therefore, a better understanding of how moderate alcohol consumption impacts breast cancer risk will allow women to make better informed decisions about the risks and benefits of alcohol consumption in the context of their overall health and at different stages of their life. Such mechanistic information is also important for the development of rational clinical interventions to reduce ethanol-related breast cancer mortality.

 

 

 

06 May 2014 In Cancer
Prospective associations between quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption and cancer-specific mortality were studied using a nationally representative sample with pooled data from the 1988, 1990, 1991, and 1997-2004 administrations of the National Health Interview Survey (n = 323,354). By 2006, 8,362 participants had died of cancer. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate relative risks. Among current alcohol drinkers, for all-site cancer mortality, higher-quantity drinking (>/=3 drinks on drinking days vs. 1 drink on drinking days) was associated with increased risk among men (relative risk (RR) = 1.24, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09, 1.41; P for linear trend = 0.001); higher-frequency drinking (>/=3 days/week vs.
06 May 2014 In Cancer

 

 

 

BACKGROUND: Dietary patterns, which represent whole-diet and possible food and nutrient interactions, have been linked to the risk of various cancers. However, the associations of these dietary patterns with breast cancer remain unclear.

OBJECTIVE: We critically appraised the literature and conducted meta-analyses to pool the results of studies to clarify the relation between dietary patterns and breast cancer risk.

DESIGN: MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for relevant articles that identified common dietary patterns published up to November 2009. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) comparing highest and lowest categories of dietary pattern scores and multivariable-adjusted ORs for a 20th-percentile increase in dietary pattern scores were combined by using random-effects meta-analyses.

RESULTS: Case-control and cohort studies were retrieved that identified prudent/healthy (n = 18), Western/unhealthy (n = 17), and drinker (n = 4) dietary patterns. There was evidence of a decrease in the risk of breast cancer in the highest compared with the lowest categories of prudent/healthy dietary patterns (OR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.82, 0.99; P = 0.02) in all studies and in pooled cohort studies alone. An increase in the risk of breast cancer was shown for the highest compared with the lowest categories of a drinker dietary pattern (OR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.41; P = 0.01). There was no evidence of a difference in the risk of breast cancer between the highest and the lowest categories of Western/unhealthy dietary patterns (OR = 1.09; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.22; P = 0.12).

CONCLUSION: The results of this systematic review and meta-analysis indicate that some dietary patterns may be associated with breast cancer risk.

 

 

 

06 May 2014 In Cancer

PURPOSE:

The association between alcohol consumption and breast cancer has been largely investigated, but few studies have investigated the effects of average intake when the pattern of drinking is taken into account. We sought to examine the association between drinking pattern of alcoholic beverages, particularly wine, and breast cancer using different statistical approaches.

METHODS:

Our study included 437 cases of breast cancer, newly diagnosed in the period 2002-2004, and 922 residence- and age-matched controls.

RESULTS:

Women who had an average consumption of less than 1.5 drinks per day had a lower risk (odds ratio [OR] = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.34-0.97) when compared with nondrinkers. This protective effect was due substantially to wine consumption since the proportion of regular wine drinkers is predominant in our study population. Furthermore, women who consumed between 10 and 12 g/d of wine had a lower risk (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.30-0.91) when compared with non-wine drinkers. Above 12 g per day of wine consumption, the risk of breast cancer increased, but the association was nonsignificant.

CONCLUSIONS:

Although no association between the pattern of total alcohol consumption and breast cancer was found, the type of alcoholic beverage seemed to play an important role in this association. Our results support the hypothesis that there is a threshold effect that risk decreased or was not modified for consumption under a certain threshold. Above that threshold, risk increased, however. The drinking pattern of each type of specific beverage, especially wine, seems important in terms of alcohol-breast cancer association. Low and regular wine consumption does not increase breast cancer risk.

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