05 December 2018 In General Health

BACKGROUND: Alcohol intake is widely assumed to contribute to excess body fatness, especially among young men; however, the evidence is inconsistent. We have addressed this research question by investigating associations between reported alcohol consumption and body composition from large representative national surveys in a high alcohol-consuming country with a high obesity prevalence.

METHODS: The present study comprised a secondary analysis of combined cross-sectional nationally representative Scottish Health Surveys (1995-2010). Reported alcohol-drinking frequency was divided into five groups: from 'nonfrequent drinking' (reference) to daily/'almost every day' among 35 837 representative adults [mean (SD) age: 42.7 (12.7) years (range 18-64 years)]. Quantitative alcohol consumption was categorised into seven groups: from '1-7 to >/=50 10 g units per week'. Regression models against measured body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were adjusted for age, physical activity, income, smoking, deprivation category and economic status.

RESULTS: Among alcohol-consuming men, heavier drinking (21-28 units per week) was associated with a higher BMI by +1.4 kg m(-2) [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.38-1.43] and higher WC by +3.4 cm (95% CI = 3.2-3.6) than drinking 1-7 units per week. However, those who reported daily drinking frequency were associated with a lower BMI by -2.45 kg m(-2) (95% CI = -2.4 to -2.5) and lower WC by -3.7 cm (95% CI = -3.3 to -4.0) than those who reported less-frequent drinking. Similar associations were found for women. Most of these associations were restricted to subjects aged >30 years. Unexplained variances in BMI and WC are large.

CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative alcohol consumption and frequency of consumption were positively and inversely associated, respectively, with both BMI and WC among alcohol-consuming adults. Surveys are needed that evaluate both the quantity and frequency of consumption. The lowest BMI and WC were associated with a 'Mediterranean' drinking style (i.e. relatively little, but more frequently).

05 December 2018 In General Health

Evidence on the relationship between alcohol consumption and body mass index (BMI) is mixed, particularly for young adults. This study explored the relationship between energy obtained from alcoholic beverages and BMI using data for 18(-)25 year-olds (n = 7691) from pooled cross-sections of the 2008(-)2014 Health Survey for England and the Scottish Health Survey. Energy obtained from alcoholic beverages (excluding mixers) on the heaviest drinking day in the past week was expressed as percentage of total recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of energy (% RDA Energy). Linear regressions were estimated of BMI on alcohol intake categories controlling for intake frequency, physical activity, longstanding illness and other covariates, with separate analyses for men and women, and by beverage type. Significant associations with BMI were observed with the 'Very High' category of alcohol intake (>75% RDA Energy) for men (p < 0.001, 1.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.98, 2.49) and with the "High" (>50% to 75% RDA Energy) (p < 0.001, 1.67, 95% CI 0.26, 2.58) and above category for women, when compared with the Low (>0(-)25% RDA Energy) category. Young adults drinking the highest levels of alcohol on a single occasion were more likely to be obese than those with the lowest intake. Interventions to address internationally rising youth obesity rates should also consider reducing alcohol consumption by increasing alcohol prices, and reducing availability and marketing exposure.

05 December 2018 In Cancer
To investigate the association of alcohol intake with colorectal cancer risk by race/ethnicity as well as sex, lifestyle-related factors, alcoholic beverage type, and anatomical subsite, we analyzed data from 190,698 African Americans, Native Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, Latinos and whites in the Multiethnic Cohort Study, with 4,923 incident cases during a 16.7-year follow-up period (1993-2013). In multivariate Cox regression models, the hazard ratio (HR) was 1.16 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.34) for 15.029.9 g/day of alcohol and 1.28 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.45) for >/=30.0 g/day in men, and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.85, 1.32) and 1.15 (95% CI: 0.92, 1.43), respectively, in women, compared with nondrinkers (P for heterogeneity by sex = 0.74). An increased risk was apparent in Native Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, Latinos and whites, and in individuals with body mass index <25.0 kg/m2, never use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and lower intake of dietary fiber and folate. Beer and wine, but not liquor, consumption was positively related to colorectal cancer risk. The association was stronger for rectum and left colon than right colon tumors. Our findings suggest that the positive association between alcohol and colorectal cancer varies by race/ethnicity, lifestyle factors, alcoholic beverage type, and anatomical subsite of tumors
29 October 2018 In Cardiovascular System

Background: To assess sex-specific associations between risk-based alcohol drinking levels and the 10-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk scores and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors.

Methods: Data from 9,995 Koreans (4,249 men, 5,746 women), aged 40 to 79 years who did not have CVD and participated in the 2011 to 2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, were used to assess risk-based alcohol drinking levels in the past year (no drinking, drinking at low risk, and drinking at risk) categorized by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, components of the 10-year CVD risk scores using the Adult Treatment Panel III risk score and the 10-year hard atherosclerotic CVD risk score, CV risk factors, and confounding factors (age, smoking status, body mass index, educational attainment, income level, and physical activity).

Results: Drinking levels had positive associations with blood pressure and levels of glucose, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and inverse associations with levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and non-HDL-C and ratio of total cholesterol (TC) to HDL-C in men, while higher drinking levels were associated with higher HDL-C levels and lower ratio of TC to HDL-C in women after adjusting for confounding factors (p for trend < 0.001). With respect to the 10-year CVD risk scores, higher drinking levels were associated with lower scores in both sexes (p for trend < 0.001).

Conclusions: Risk-based drinking levels were more likely to have dose-dependent associations with CV risk factors in men than in women and had inverse relationships with 10-year CVD risk in both men and women.

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