04 May 2020 In Diabetes

We aimed to determine the association between alcohol consumption change on fasting serum glucose, insulin resistance, and beta cell function.

The study population consisted of 55,858 men from the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study. Participants were divided into non-, light, moderate, and heavy drinkers for each of the first and second health examinations based on a self-reported questionnaire on alcohol consumption. The adjusted mean values for change in fasting serum glucose (FSG), homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and beta cell function (HOMA-beta) levels were determined according to alcohol consumption change by linear regression. Compared to sustained initial drinkers, those who increased alcohol intake to moderate (p < 0.001) and heavy (p < 0.001) levels had increased FSG levels.

In contrast, reduction in alcohol intake to light levels among initial heavy drinkers was associated with reduced change in FSG levels (p = 0.007) compared to sustained heavy drinkers. No significant associations were observed between changes in alcohol intake with HOMA-IR levels. Compared to sustained light drinkers, those who increased alcohol intake to moderate (p < 0.001) and heavy (p = 0.009) levels had lower increases in HOMA-beta levels.

Finally, compared to sustained heavy drinkers, those who reduced alcohol consumption to light levels had greater increases in HOMA-beta levels (p = 0.002). Increases in alcohol consumption were associated with higher blood glucose levels and worsened beta cell function. Heavy drinkers who reduce alcohol intake could benefit from improved blood glucose control via improved beta cell function.

21 September 2016 In Diabetes

BACKGROUND: People with diabetes are told that drinking alcohol may increase their risk of hypoglycaemia. AIMS: To report the effects of alcohol consumption on glycaemic control in people with diabetes mellitus.

METHODS: Medline, EMBASE and the Cochrane library databases were searched in 2015 to identify randomized trials that compared alcohol consumption with no alcohol use, reporting glycaemic control in people with diabetes. Data on blood glucose, HbA1c and numbers of hypoglycaemic episodes were pooled using random effects meta-analysis.

RESULTS: Pooled data from nine short-term studies showed no difference in blood glucose concentrations between those who drank alcohol in doses of 16-80 g (median 20g, 2.5 units) compared with those who did not drink alcohol at 0.5, 2, 4 and 24 h after alcohol consumption. Pooled data from five medium-term studies showed that there was no difference in blood glucose or HbA1c concentrations at the end of the study between those who drank 11-18 g alcohol/day (median 13g/day, 1.5 units/day) for 4-104 weeks and those who did not. We found no evidence of a difference in number of hypoglycaemic episodes or in withdrawal rates between randomized groups.

CONCLUSIONS: Studies to date have not provided evidence that drinking light to moderate amounts of alcohol, with or without a meal, affects any measure of glycaemic control in people with Type 2 diabetes. These results suggest that current advice that people with diabetes do not need to refrain from drinking moderate quantities of alcohol does not need to be changed; risks to those with Type 1 diabetes remain uncertain. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

27 January 2016 In Cardiovascular System

Mendelian randomisation studies from Asia suggest detrimental influences of alcohol on cardiovascular risk factors, but such associations are observed mainly in men. The absence of associations of genetic variants (e.g. rs671 in ALDH2) with such risk factors in women - who drank little in these populations - provides evidence that the observations are not due to genetic pleiotropy. Here, we present a Mendelian randomisation study in a South Korean population (3,365 men and 3,787 women) that 1) provides robust evidence that alcohol consumption adversely affects several cardiovascular disease risk factors, including blood pressure, waist to hip ratio, fasting blood glucose and triglyceride levels. Alcohol also increases HDL cholesterol and lowers LDL cholesterol. Our study also 2) replicates sex differences in associations which suggests pleiotropy does not underlie the associations, 3) provides further evidence that association is not due to pleiotropy by showing null effects in male non-drinkers, and 4) illustrates a way to measure population-level association where alcohol intake is stratified by sex. In conclusion, population-level instrumental variable estimation (utilizing interaction of rs671 in ALDH2 and sex as an instrument) strengthens causal inference regarding the largely adverse influence of alcohol intake on cardiovascular health in an Asian population.

26 March 2015 In Diabetes

BACKGROUND: Accumulative evidence in the literature suggests alcohol consumption is a protective factor of the metabolic syndrome (MS). However, few studies investigated the relationship between alcohol consumption and components of MS. We examined association of several types of alcoholic beverage with components of MS among people in rural China.

METHODS: In the Nantong Metabolic Syndrome Study (NMSS), a cross-sectional study, a total of 20,502 participants, including 13,505 women and 6,997 men aged 18-74 years, were recruited between 2007 and 2008 in Nantong, China. Socio-economic status, dietary intake, physical exercise, alcoholic beverage consumption, and smoking status information were obtained, and triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprtein cholesterol (HDL-c), blood pressure (BP) and blood glucose level were examined for all participants. Logistic regression model and the restricted cubic spline approach were used to analyze the associations between alcoholic beverage consumption and MS components.

RESULTS: The MS prevalence was 21.1% in the whole population, which was significantly low among drinkers (20.6%), compared with non-drinkers (23.6%) in women, and was comparable in men (16.4% versus 17.1%). High HDL-c level was observed among drinkers, compared with non-drinkers in both men and women. Low TG level and Systolic BP (SBP) were found only among rice wine drinkers in women, and high waist circumference, high TG and BP were found among beer and liquor drinkers in men. Furthermore, we found that the highest quartile of rice wine drink in women may decrease 24% risk of high TG, 30% risk of low HDL-c and 43% risk of high glucose among MS components cases respectively, compared with non-drinkers (p for trend <0.01 for those three components). While compared non-drinkers among men, the highest quartile of liquor drink may increase 32% risk of high SBP, 55% risk of high Diastolic BP (DBP) and 34% risk of abdominal obesity among MS components cases respectively, but decrease 45% risk of low HDL-c (p for trend <0.05 for those four components).

CONCLUSION: Our data suggested that all alcoholic beverages increased HDL-c level. Rice wine decreased both TG level and blood glucose in women only and it could be one of healthy alcoholic beverages in MS prevention in Chinese women. While excessive liquor consumption increased BP and waist circumference level and it may lead to hypertension and central obesity in Chinese men.

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