BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The alcohol industry produces 'responsible drinking' advertising campaigns. There is concern that these may promote drinking while persuading governments and the general public that the industry is acting responsibly. This paper examined young people's thoughts and feelings in response to one of these campaigns in Australia.

DESIGN: A qualitative analysis of introspection data provided by young drinkers after exposure to a responsible drinking advertisement produced by DrinkWise called 'How to Drink Properly'.

SETTING: Perth, Western Australia.

PARTICIPANTS: Forty-eight 18-21-year-old drinkers.

MEASUREMENTS: The qualitative data were imported into NVivo10 and coded according to the various stages of advertising effects frameworks. A thematic analysis approach was used to identify patterns in the data relating to (i) perceptions of the source and purpose of the advertisement and (ii) any resulting attitudinal or behavioural outcomes.

FINDINGS: Despite the sample comprising mainly high-risk drinkers, participants were generally unable to relate to the heavy drinkers depicted in the DrinkWise advertisement. This disassociation resulted in a perceived lack of need to modify their own drinking behaviours. Instead, the study participants found the advertisement to be entertaining and supportive of existing social norms relating to heavy drinking among members of this age group.

CONCLUSIONS: The 'How to Drink Properly' advertisement by Drinkwise in Australia may reinforce existing drinking attitudes and behaviours among young drinkers.

22 March 2016 In Drinking & Eating Patterns

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Questions about drinking " yesterday" have been used to correct under-reporting of typical alcohol consumption in surveys. We use this method to explore patterns of over- and under-reporting of drinking quantity and frequency by population sub-groups in four countries.

DESIGN: Multivariate linear regression analyses comparing estimates of typical quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption with and without adjustments using the Yesterday method. Setting and participants Survey respondents in Australia (n = 26,648), Canada (n = 43,370), USA (n = 7,969) and England (n = 8,610).

MEASUREMENTS: Estimates of typical drinking quantities and frequencies over the past year plus quantity of alcohol consumed the previous day. FINDINGS: Typical frequency was underestimated by less frequent drinkers in each country. For example, after adjustment for design effects and age, Australian males self reporting drinking "less than once a month" were estimated to have in fact drunk an average of 14.70 (+/-0.59) days in the past year compared with the standard assumption of 6 days (t = 50.5, p < 0.001). Drinking quantity " yesterday" was not significantly different overall from self-reported typical quantities over the past year in Canada, USA and England but slightly lower in Australia (e.g. 2.66 vs 3.04 drinks, t = 20.4, p < 0.01 for women).

CONCLUSIONS: People who describe themselves as less frequent drinkers appear substantially to under-report their drinking frequency, but country and sub-group specific corrections can be estimated. Detailed questions using the Yesterday method can correct under-reporting of quantity of drinking.

22 March 2016 In Drinking & Eating Patterns

BACKGROUND: Parents are a major supplier of alcohol to adolescents, often initiating use with sips. Despite harms of adolescent alcohol use, research has not addressed the antecedents of such parental supply. This study investigated the prospective associations between familial, parental, peer, and adolescent characteristics on parental supply of sips.

METHODS: Participants were 1729 parent-child dyads recruited from Grade 7 classes, as part of the Australian Parental Supply of Alcohol Longitudinal Study. Data are from baseline surveys (Time 1) and 1-year follow-up (Time 2). Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regressions tested prospective associations between Time 1 familial, parental, peer, and adolescent characteristics and Time 2 parental supply.

RESULTS: In the fully adjusted model, parental supply was associated with increased parent-report of peer substance use (odds ratio [OR] = 1.20, 95% confidence ratio [CI], 1.08-1.34), increased home alcohol access (OR = 1.07, 95% CI, 1.03-1.11), and lenient alcohol-specific rules (OR=0.88, 95% CI, 0.78-0.99).

CONCLUSIONS: Parents who perceived that their child engaged with substance-using peers were more likely to subsequently supply sips of alcohol. Parents may believe supply of a small quantity of alcohol will protect their child from unsupervised alcohol use with peers. It is also possible that parental perception of peer substance use may result in parents believing that this is a normative behavior for their child's age group, and in turn that supply is also normative. Further research is required to understand the impacts of such supply, even in small quantities, on adolescent alcohol use trajectories.

22 March 2016 In Cardiovascular System

BACKGROUND: Habitual moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a lower risk of acute myocardial infarction (MI), whereas heavy (binge) drinking is associated with higher cardiovascular risk. However, less is known about the immediate effects of alcohol consumption on the risk of acute MI and whether any association differs by beverage type or usual drinking patterns.

METHODS: We conducted a case-crossover analysis of 3869 participants from the Determinants of Myocardial Infarction Onset Study who were interviewed during hospitalization for acute MI in one of the 64 medical centers across the United States in 1989-1996. We compared the observed number of times that each participant consumed wine, beer, or liquor in the hour preceding MI symptom onset with the expected frequency based on each participant's control information, defined as the number of times the participant consumed alcohol in the past year.

RESULTS: Among 3869 participants, 2119 (55%) reported alcohol consumption in the past year, including 76 within 1 hour before acute MI onset. The incidence rate of acute MI onset was elevated 1.72-fold (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.37-2.16) within 1 hour after alcohol consumption. The association was stronger for liquor than for beer or wine. The higher rate was not apparent for daily drinkers. For the 24 hours after consumption, there was a 14% lower rate (relative risk = 0.86 [95% CI = 0.79-0.95]) of MI compared with periods with no alcohol consumption.

CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol consumption is associated with an acutely higher risk of MI in the subsequent hour among people who do not typically drink alcohol daily.

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