15 June 2022 In Cardiovascular System

Evidence from research studies reports that wine consumption is associated with lower cardiovascular disease risk, partly through the amelioration of oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of regular light to moderate wine consumption from coronary heart disease (CHD) patients compared to the effect induced by alcohol intake without the presence of wine microconstituents, on oxidation-induced macromolecular damage as well as on endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity. A randomized, single-blind, controlled, three-arm parallel intervention was carried out, in which 64 CHD patients were allocated to three intervention groups. Group A consumed no alcohol, and Group B (wine) and Group C (ethanol) consumed 27 g of alcohol/day for 8 weeks. Blood and urine samples were collected at baseline and at 4 and 8 weeks. Urine oxidized guanine species levels, protein carbonyls, thiobarbituric acid substances (TBARS) levels, as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, were measured. Oxidized guanine species and protein carbonyl levels were significantly increased in the ethanol group during the intervention and were significantly decreased in the wine group. These results support the idea that wine's bioactive compounds may exert antioxidant actions that counteract the macromolecular oxidative damage induced by alcohol in CHD patients.

26 January 2022 In Cardiovascular System

The consumption of food for pleasure is mainly associated with adverse health effects. This review was carried out to verify recent reports on the impact of chocolate and wine consumption on cardiovascular health, with a particular focus on atherosclerosis. On one side, these products have proven adverse effects on the cardiovascular system, but on the other hand, if consumed in optimal amounts, they have cardiovascular benefits.

The submitted data suggest that the beneficial doses are 30-50 g and 130/250 mL for chocolate and wine, respectively, for women and men. The accumulated evidence indicates that the active ingredients in the products under consideration in this review are phenolic compounds, characterized by anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiplatelet properties. However, there are also some reports of cardioprotective properties of other compounds such as esters, amines, biogenic amines, amino acids, fatty acids, mineral ingredients, and vitamins.

Our narrative review has shown that in meta-analyses of intervention studies, consumption of chocolate and wine was positively associated with the beneficial outcomes associated with the cardiovascular system. In contrast, the assessment with the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) scale did not confirm this phenomenon.

In addition, mechanisms of action of bioactive compounds present in chocolate and wine depend on some factors, such as age, sex, body weight, and the presence of additional medical conditions. Patients using cardiovascular drugs simultaneously with both products should be alert to the risk of pharmacologically relevant interactions during their use.

Our narrative review leads to the conclusion that there is abundant evidence to prove the beneficial impact of consuming both products on cardiovascular health, however some evidence still remains controversial. Many authors of studies included in this review postulated that well-designed, longitudinal studies should be performed to determine the effects of these products and their components on atherosclerosis and other CVD (Cardiovascular Disease) disease.

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