24 June 2019 In General Health

The scientific evidence available on the association between moderate alcohol intake and levels of blood cardiometabolic markers is still inconsistent and difficult to interpret for future disease prevention. However, we hypothesize that moderate consumption of alcohol is associated with lower levels of inflammation markers and higher levels of protective cardiometabolic markers. Thus, this work aimed to examine the associations of moderate alcohol intake and the type of alcoholic beverage with metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers. An observational, cross-sectional study including 143 apparently healthy adults 55years of age and older was performed. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect information on alcoholic beverage intake frequency, food frequency, physical activity, socioeconomic status, diseases and medications, and other health-related habits. Three groups were established prior to recruitment: (1) abstainers and occasional consumers (ABS, n=54); (2) beer consumers (BEER >/=80% of total alcohol intake; n=40), and (3) mixed beverage consumers (MIXED; n=49). Univariate analysis of variance models, adjusted for confounding factors and covariables, were performed. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and sP-selectin were significantly higher in the MIXED group than in the ABS group, and adiponectin was higher in the MIXED group compared to the BEER group. All alcohol consumers also had higher mean platelet volume values compared to ABS. In linear regression analyses, HDL-c, sP-selectin, and adiponectin were positively associated with wine intake (g/d) (P<.001, P=.014, and P=.017, respectively); and mean platelet volume, with beer intake (P=.017). In conclusion, this cross-sectional study showed that moderate alcohol intake is associated with higher levels of HDL-c and adiponectin compared to those in abstainers, which are mainly explained by wine intake.

24 June 2019 In Diabetes

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcohol consumption correlates with type 2 diabetes through its effects on insulin resistance, changes in alcohol metabolite levels, and anti-inflammatory effects. We aim to clarify association between frequency of alcohol consumption and risk of diabetes in Taiwanese population.

METHODS: The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) in 2001, 2005, and 2009 selected a representative sample of Taiwan population using a multistage sampling design. Information was collected by standardized face to face interview. Study subjects were connected to the Taiwan National Health Insurance claims dataset and National Register of Deaths Dataset from 2000 to 2013. Kaplan-Meier curve with log rank test was employed to assess the influence of alcohol drinking on incidence of diabetes. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional regression were used to recognize risk factors of diabetes.

RESULTS: A total of 43,000 participants were included (49.65% male; mean age, 41.79 +/- 16.31 years). During the 9-year follow-up period, 3650 incident diabetes cases were recognized. Kaplan-Meier curves comparing the four groups of alcohol consumption frequency showed significant differences (p < 0.01). After adjustment for potentially confounding variables, compared to social drinkers, the risks of diabetes were significantly higher for non-drinkers (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-1.34; p < 0.01), regular drinkers (AHR = 1.19; 95% CI, 1.06-1.35; p < 0.01), and heavy drinkers (AHR = 2.21, 95% CI, 1.56-3.13, p < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS: Social drinkers have a significantly decreased risk of new-onset diabetes compared with non-, regular, and heavy drinkers.

24 June 2019 In Dementia

BACKGROUND: Alcohol use has been identified as a risk factor for dementia and cognitive decline. However, some patterns of drinking have been associated with beneficial effects.

METHODS AND RESULTS: To clarify the relationship between alcohol use and dementia, we conducted a scoping review based on a systematic search of systematic reviews published from January 2000 to October 2017 by using Medline, Embase, and PsycINFO. Overall, 28 systematic reviews were identified: 20 on the associations between the level of alcohol use and the incidence of cognitive impairment/dementia, six on the associations between dimensions of alcohol use and specific brain functions, and two on induced dementias. Although causality could not be established, light to moderate alcohol use in middle to late adulthood was associated with a decreased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Heavy alcohol use was associated with changes in brain structures, cognitive impairments, and an increased risk of all types of dementia.

CONCLUSION: Reducing heavy alcohol use may be an effective dementia prevention strategy.

24 June 2019 In Cardiovascular System

BACKGROUND: Light-to-moderate alcohol drinking reduces the risk of ischemic heart disease, and this effect of alcohol is mainly explained by alcohol-induced elevation of HDL cholesterol. Hypo-HDL cholesterolemia is a potent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to clarify how alcohol relates to cardiovascular risk factors in men with hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia.

METHODS: The subjects were middle-aged men with hypo-HDL cholesterolemia (< 40mg/dl), and they were divided into four groups by daily alcohol consumption (non-; light, < 22g ethanol/day; moderate, >/=22g ethanol and /=44g ethanol/day). Each risk factor was compared among the groups after adjustment for age and histories of smoking and regular exercise.

RESULTS: Systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels, log-transformed lipid accumulation product and log-transformed cardio-metabolic index were significantly higher in moderate and heavy drinkers than in nondrinkers. Log-transformed triglycerides and triglycerides-to-HDL cholesterol ratio were significantly higher in light, moderate and heavy drinkers than in nondrinkers and tended to be higher with an increase of alcohol intake. LDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol-to-HDL cholesterol ratio were significantly lower in light, moderate and heavy drinkers than in nondrinkers and tended to be lower with an increase of alcohol intake. The above trends for the relationships of alcohol drinking with the cardiovascular risk factors were also found in multivariate logistic regression analysis.

CONCLUSIONS: In men with hypo-HDL cholesterolemia, alcohol drinking shows positive associations with blood pressure and triglycerides and an inverse association with LDL cholesterol.

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