28 September 2023 In Cardiovascular System

Underlying mechanisms of the inverse relationship between moderate alcohol consumption and cardiometabolic disorders are unclear. Modification by types of alcoholic beverages consumed and drinking pattern remains understudied. We aimed to provide insight into the mechanisms by examining 14 insulinemic/glycemic, inflammatory and lipid markers. We used cross-sectional data from 15,436 women in the Nurses' Health Study, 19,318 women in the Nurses' Health Study II, and 6872 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the percentage differences in biomarker concentrations according to alcohol intakes. The average alcohol intake in the combined cohort was 3.3 servings/week. We found a 1 serving/d increment in alcohol intake (14 g ethanol, 44 ml liquor or 355 ml beer or 118 ml wine per day) was associated with a 0.6% lower level of HbA1c, 1.7-3.6% lower proinflammatory markers and 4.2% higher adiponectin, as well as 7.1% higher HDL-cholesterol and 2.1% lower triglyceride with a significant linear trend. Wine, especially red wine, was associated with lower inflammation in particular. Beer had weaker favorable to null associations with blood lipids and adiponectin. Liquor was associated with higher C-peptide and interleukin-6, yet equally associated with lower HbA1c and higher HDL-cholesterol as other beverages. Drinking 3 days or more per week was related to a better biomarker profile than nonregular drinking independent of intake levels. Drinking appeared to have similar associations irrespective whether done with meals or not. Our data indicated moderate alcohol intake, especially if consumed from wine and done regularly, was associated with favorable profiles of insulinemic/glycemic and inflammatory markers and blood lipids.

28 September 2023 In Dementia

BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders have been categorized as a 'strongly modifiable' risk factor for dementia. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cross-sectional association between alcohol consumption and cognition in older adults and if it is different across sexes or depends on amyloid-beta (Abeta) accumulation in the brain. METHODS: Cognitively unimpaired older adults (N = 4387) with objective and subjective cognitive assessments and amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) imaging were classified into four categories based on their average daily alcohol use.

Multivariable linear regression was then used to test the main effects and interactions with sex and Abeta levels. RESULTS: Individuals who reported no alcohol consumption had lower scores on the Preclinical Alzheimer Cognitive Composite (PACC) compared to those consuming one or two drinks/day. In sex-stratified analysis, the association between alcohol consumption and cognition was more prominent in females. Female participants who consumed two drinks/day had better performance on PACC and Cognitive Function Index (CFI) than those who reported no alcohol consumption.

In an Abeta-stratified sample, the association between alcohol consumption and cognition was present only in the Abeta- subgroup.

The interaction between Abeta status and alcohol consumption on cognition was not significant. CONCLUSION: Low or moderate consumption of alcohol was associated with better objective cognitive performance and better subjective report of daily functioning in cognitively unimpaired individuals. The association was present only in Abeta- individuals, suggesting that the pathophysiologic mechanism underlying the effect of alcohol on cognition is independent of Abeta pathology. Further investigation is required with larger samples consuming three or more drinks/day.

28 September 2023 In Osteoporosis

INTRODUCTION: Osteoporosis prevalence will increase in coming decades, with significant financial and economic implications. Whilst alcohol excess has significant detrimental impacts on bone mineral density (BMD), knowledge of low-volume consumption is inconsistent. Type of alcohol may mediate impact on BMD and warrants further investigation.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants were drawn from the Florey Adelaide Male Aging Study, a cohort of community dwelling men from Adelaide, Australia (n = 1195). The final cohort (n = 693) provided information regarding alcohol consumption and undertook BMD scan at wave one (2002-2005) and wave two (2007-2010). Cross-sectional and longitudinal multivariable regression was performed for whole-body and spine BMD. To assess change in exposure over time, change in BMD was compared to change in covariates between waves.

RESULTS: Cross-sectionally, whole-body BMD was positively associated with obesity (p < 0.001), exercise (p = 0.009), prior smoking (p = 0.001), oestrogen concentration (p = 0.001), rheumatoid arthritis (p = 0.013) and grip strength (p < 0.001).

No association was identified with volume of differing types of alcohol consumed. Spinal BMD was inversely associated with low-strength beer consumption (p = 0.003). The volume of alcohol consumed at Wave 1 did not predict change in whole-body or spinal BMD; however, increases in full-strength beer consumption between waves were associated with reduced spinal BMD (p = 0.031). CONCLUSION: When consumed at quantities in the usual social range, alcohol was not associated with whole-body BMD. However, low-strength beer consumption was inversely related to spinal BMD.

18 August 2023 In General Health

The association between socioeconomic status (SES) and alcohol-related diseases has been widely explored. Less is known, however, on whether the association of moderate drinking with all-cause mortality is modified by educational level (EL). Using harmonized data from 16 cohorts in the MORGAM Project (N = 142,066) the association of pattern of alcohol intake with hazard of all-cause mortality across EL (lower = primary-school; middle = secondary-school; higher = university/college degree) was assessed using multivariable Cox-regression and spline curves. A total of 16,695 deaths occurred in 11.8 years (median). In comparison with life-long abstainers, participants drinking 0.1-10 g/d of ethanol had 13% (HR = 0.87; 95%CI: 0.74-1.02), 11% (HR = 0.89; 0.84-0.95) and 5% (HR = 0.95; 0.89-1.02) lower rate of death in higher, middle and lower EL, respectively. Conversely, drinkers > 20 g/d had 1% (HR = 1.01; 0.82-1.25), 10% (HR = 1.10; 1.02-1.19) and 17% (HR = 1.17; 1.09-1.26) higher rate of death. The association of alcohol consumption with all-cause mortality was nonlinear, with a different J-shape by EL levels. It was consistent across both sexes and in various approaches of measuring alcohol consumption, including combining quantity and frequency and it was more evident when the beverage of preference was wine. We observed that drinking in moderation (</= 10 g/d) is associated with lower mortality rate more evidently in individuals with higher EL than in people with lower EL, while heavy drinking is associated with higher mortality rate more evidently in individuals with lower EL than in people with higher EL, suggesting that advice on reducing alcohol intake should especially target individuals of low EL.

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