24 October 2019 In Phenolic compounds

Following an ever-increasing tendency to underline the detrimental effects of alcoholic beverages on human health, wine consumption has also recorded a steady decrease. This is despite multiple beneficial effects on health demonstrated by research.

This review presents the latest information regarding the effects of wine on human health. While the potential detrimental effect of alcohol is not disregarded, but acknowledged where science clearly demonstrated a negative impact, potential beneficial effects are also presented and discussed.

Aside from alcohol, wine contains other compounds which have been shown to serve as antioxidants and anti-blood clotting agents or metabolic signaling molecules, with anti-proliferative, chemoprotective, immunomodulating actions.

Accordingly, light to moderate but not heavy wine consumption can complement other dietary effects on human health. Recent research suggests that wine-derived compounds belonging to the phenolic compound classes are important to human health and some of their putative actions are presented in this review.

24 October 2019 In Drinking Patterns

BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested a link between the type of alcoholic beverage consumption and body weight. However, results from longitudinal studies have been inconsistent, and the association between adolescent alcohol consumption long-term weight gain has generally not been examined.

METHODS: The study was based on data from 720 Danish adolescents aged between 15 to 19 years at baseline from the Danish Youth and Sports Study (YSS). Self-reported alcohol use, height, weight, smoking, social economic status (SES) and physical activity levels were assessed in baseline surveys conducted in 1983 and 1985, and in the follow up survey which was conducted in 2005. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the association between alcohol consumption in adolescence and subsequent weight gain later in midlife.

RESULTS: There was no significant association between total alcohol consumption during adolescence and change in BMI into midlife (P = 0.079) (beta - 0.14; 95% CI -0.28, 0.005). Wine consumption was found to be inversely associated to subsequent BMI gain (P = 0.001) (beta - 0.46; 95% CI -0.82, - 0.09) while the results were not significant for beer and spirit. The relationship did not differ by gender, but smoking status was found to modify the relationship, and the inverse association between alcohol and BMI gain was seen only among non-smokers (P = 0.01) (beta - 0.24; 95% CI -0.41, - 0.06) while no association was found among smokers. Neither adolescent nor attained socioeconomic status in adulthood modified the relationship between alcohol intake and subsequent BMI gain.

CONCLUSION: Among non-smoking adolescents, consumption of alcohol, and in particular wine, seems to be associated with less weight gain until midlife.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: The YSS cohort was retrospectively registered on August 2017. (Study ID number: NCT03244150 ).

24 October 2019 In Drinking Patterns

AIM: To present a comparison between the effects on health due to a reduction in binge drinking (BD) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), as a result of ALERTA ALCOHOL, an intervention aimed at reducing BD in Spanish adolescents.

METHODS: A two-arm cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted with an intervention and a control group, randomized at the school level, following individuals over four months. The study population consisted of Andalusian adolescents aged 15 to 19 years who were enrolled in urban public high schools (n=1247). Participants were assigned randomly to receive the intervention. The main outcomes studied were the number of occasions of BD in the last 30 days, which was directly obtained from the answers given by the adolescents, and HRQoL measured with the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire. The model of estimation was the generalized estimating equations (GEE) approach.

RESULTS: The program showed a BD reduction at the 4-month follow-up, although it was not shown to significantly increase the HRQoL in adolescents who reduced the number of occasions of BD and had received the intervention. However, it was shown that those who would predictably reduce the number of occasions of BD controlled by several sociodemographic variables perceived a higher HRQoL, as did those who had a greater adherence to the program.

CONCLUSIONS: Higher adherence to a web-based computer-tailored intervention to prevent BD in adolescents has a positive effect on decreasing the number of occasions of BD in adolescents as well as on increasing participants' HRQoL, although this second effect is very small, which could be due to the short follow-up time. This fact is quite important and should be assessed extensively to corroborate the results and translate into health policy.

24 October 2019 In General Health

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between potentially serious alcohol-medication interactions (POSAMINO criteria), hypothesised to increase the risk of falls in older adults, and falls in community-dwelling older adults at two and 4 years follow-up.

DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. SETTING: The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing.

SUBJECTS: A total of 1,457 community-dwelling older adults aged >/=65 years, with a complete alcohol and regular medication data to allow for the application of the POSAMINO criteria.

OUTCOMES: Self-reported falls at 2 and 4 years follow-up, any falls (yes/no), injurious falls (yes/no) and number of falls (count variable).

RESULTS: The number of participants who reported falling since their baseline interview at 2 and 4 years were 357 (24%) and 608 (41.8%), respectively; 145 (10%) reported an injurious fall at 2 years and 268 (18%) at 4 years. Median (IQR) number of falls was 1 (1-2) at 2 years and 2 (1-3) at 4 years. Exposure to CNS POSAMINO criteria, hypothesised to increase the risk of falls due primarily to increased sedation, was associated with a significantly increased risk for falling (adjusted relative risk (RR) 1.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21-1.88) and for injurious falls (adjusted RR 1.62, 95% CI: 1.03-2.55) at 4 years. These equate to an absolute risk of 19% for falling (95% CI: 5-33%) and 8% for injurious falls (95% CI, 4-20%) at 4 years.

CONCLUSIONS: Assessment and management strategies to prevent falls in community-dwelling older adults should consider patients' alcohol consumption alongside their assessment of patient medications, particularly among those receiving CNS agents.

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