18 August 2023 In General Health

The association between socioeconomic status (SES) and alcohol-related diseases has been widely explored. Less is known, however, on whether the association of moderate drinking with all-cause mortality is modified by educational level (EL). Using harmonized data from 16 cohorts in the MORGAM Project (N = 142,066) the association of pattern of alcohol intake with hazard of all-cause mortality across EL (lower = primary-school; middle = secondary-school; higher = university/college degree) was assessed using multivariable Cox-regression and spline curves. A total of 16,695 deaths occurred in 11.8 years (median). In comparison with life-long abstainers, participants drinking 0.1-10 g/d of ethanol had 13% (HR = 0.87; 95%CI: 0.74-1.02), 11% (HR = 0.89; 0.84-0.95) and 5% (HR = 0.95; 0.89-1.02) lower rate of death in higher, middle and lower EL, respectively. Conversely, drinkers > 20 g/d had 1% (HR = 1.01; 0.82-1.25), 10% (HR = 1.10; 1.02-1.19) and 17% (HR = 1.17; 1.09-1.26) higher rate of death. The association of alcohol consumption with all-cause mortality was nonlinear, with a different J-shape by EL levels. It was consistent across both sexes and in various approaches of measuring alcohol consumption, including combining quantity and frequency and it was more evident when the beverage of preference was wine. We observed that drinking in moderation (</= 10 g/d) is associated with lower mortality rate more evidently in individuals with higher EL than in people with lower EL, while heavy drinking is associated with higher mortality rate more evidently in individuals with lower EL than in people with higher EL, suggesting that advice on reducing alcohol intake should especially target individuals of low EL.

18 August 2023 In General Health

BACKGROUND: Glomerular hyperfiltration has been reported to be associated with adverse renal outcomes in general population. It is not known whether drinking pattern is associated with the risk of glomerular hyperfiltration in healthy individuals.

METHODS: We prospectively followed middle-aged 8,640 Japanese men with normal renal function, no proteinuria, no diabetes, and no use of antihypertensive medications at entry. Data on alcohol consumption were gathered by questionnaire. Glomerular hyperfiltration was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >/=117 mL/min/1.73 m(2), which was the upper 2.5th percentile value of eGFR in the entire cohort.

RESULTS: During 46,186 person-years of follow-up, 330 men developed glomerular hyperfiltration. In a multivariate model, for men who consumed alcohol on 1-3 days per week, alcohol consumption of >/=69.1g ethanol/drinking day was significantly associated with the risk of glomerular hyperfiltration (hazard ratio (HR), 2.37 (95% CI, 1.18-4.74)) compared with non-drinkers. For those who consumed alcohol on 4-7 days per week, higher alcohol consumption per drinking day was associated with a higher risk of glomerular hyperfiltration: the HRs (95% CI) for alcohol consumption of 46.1-69.0, and >/=69.1 g ethanol/drinking day were 1.55 (1.01-2.38), and 1.78 (1.02-3.12), respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: For high drinking frequency per week, more alcohol intake per drinking day was associated with an increased risk of glomerular hyperfiltration, while for low drinking frequency per week, only very high alcohol intake per drinking day was associated with an increased risk of glomerular hyperfiltration in middle-aged Japanese men.

18 August 2023 In General Health

Alcohol use is causally linked to the development of and mortality from numerous diseases. The aim of this study is to provide an update to a previous systematic review of meta-analyses that quantify the sex-specific dose-response risk relationships between chronic alcohol use and disease occurrence and/or mortality. An updated systematic search of multiple databases was performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses criteria to identify meta-analyses published from January 1, 2017, to March 8, 2021, which quantified the risk relationships between chronic alcohol use and the risk of disease occurrence and/or mortality. This systematic review was not preregistered. The comparator was people who have never consumed at least one standard drink of alcohol. Measurements included relative risks, odds ratios, and hazard ratios of disease occurrence and/or mortality based on long-term alcohol intake measured in grams per day. The systematic search yielded 5953 articles, of which 14 were included in the narrative review. All diseases showed an increased risk of occurrence as alcohol use increased. At all doses examined, alcohol had a significant detrimental effect on tuberculosis, lower respiratory infections, oral cavity and pharyngeal cancers, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, laryngeal cancer, epilepsy, hypertension, liver cirrhosis, and pancreatitis (among men). For ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, and intracerebral hemorrhage, protective effects from low-dose chronic alcohol use among both men and women were observed. Low-dose alcohol consumption also had a protective effect for diabetes mellitus and pancreatitis among women (approximately to 50 g/day and 30 g/day, respectively). Alcohol use increases the risk of numerous infectious and noncommunicable diseases in a dose-response manner. Higher levels of alcohol use have a clear detrimental impact on health; however, at lower levels of use, alcohol can have both disease-specific protective and detrimental effects.

18 August 2023 In Diabetes

CONTEXT: Effects of modest alcohol consumption remain controversial. Mendelian randomization (MR) can help to mitigate biases due to confounding and reverse causation in observational studies, and evaluate the potential causal role of alcohol consumption.

OBJECTIVE: This work aimed to evaluate dose-dependent effect of alcohol consumption on obesity and type 2 diabetes.

METHODS: Assessing 408 540 participants of European ancestry in the UK Biobank, we first tested the association between self-reported alcohol intake frequency and 10 anthropometric measurements, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. We then conducted MR analyses both in the overall population and in subpopulations stratified by alcohol intake frequency.

RESULTS: Among individuals having more than 14 drinks per week, a 1-drink-per-week increase in genetically predicted alcohol intake frequency was associated with a 0.36-kg increase in fat mass (SD = 0.03 kg), a 1.08-fold increased odds of obesity (95% CI, 1.06-1.10), and a 1.10-fold increased odds of type 2 diabetes (95% CI, 1.06-1.13). These associations were stronger in women than in men. Furthermore, no evidence was found supporting the association between genetically increased alcohol intake frequency and improved health outcomes among individuals having 7 or fewer drinks per week, as MR estimates largely overlapped with the null. These results withstood multiple sensitivity analyses assessing the validity of MR assumptions.

CONCLUSION: As opposed to observational associations, MR results suggest there may not be protective effects of modest alcohol consumption on obesity traits and type 2 diabetes. Heavy alcohol consumption could lead to increased measures of obesity as well as increased risk of type 2 diabetes.

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