22 October 2021 In Cancer
Background: Controversial results of the association between alcohol consumption and risk of bladder cancer were reported by the previous meta-analyses. Objective: To quantitatively investigate the association between alcohol consumption and risk of bladder cancer based on prospective cohort studies, and explore whether there is potential dose-response relation. Method: PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library databases, China Biology Medicine disc (CBM), and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were searched for relevant studies. Categorical meta-analysis was performed for risk estimates of any alcohol consumers versus non-drinkers as well as different drinking degrees (light, moderate, and heavy) versus none. And two-stage generalized least-squares regression and restricted cubic spline, as well as fixed-effects dose-response models, were used for linear and nonlinear dose-response relation exploration. Results: 9 prospective cohort studies including 1,971,396 individuals were finally included. We did not observe a significant association between alcohol intake and the risk of bladder cancer in the entire population. Linear association was detected in those who consumed alcohol from liquor or spirits (P linear=0.02). One drink increment each day of alcohol could elevate the risk of bladder cancer by 9% (RR=1.09; 95%CI: 1.01-1.17). Alcohol was a risk factor of bladder cancer for male drinkers (RR=1.23; 95%CI: 1.13-1.35; I(2)=3.7%), while none linear or nonlinear relation was found. Conclusion: No significant association between alcohol consumption and bladder cancer risk was found in the entire population, but there was a linear dose-response relation in those who consume alcohol from liquor or spirits. Alcohol may elevate the risk of bladder cancer in males in a dose-independent way. Systematic Review Registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/, PROSPERO (CRD42020216195).
23 September 2021 In Liver Disease

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested an association between modest alcohol consumption and a decreased risk of advanced liver fibrosis among patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) although the results are inconsistent. The current systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to comprehensively investigate this possible association by identifying all the relevant studies and combining their results.

METHODS: A comprehensive literature review was conducted utilizing the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases through February 2019 to identify all cross-sectional studies that compared the prevalence of advanced liver fibrosis among NAFLD patients who were modest alcohol drinkers to NAFLD patients who were non-drinkers. Effect estimates from each study were extracted and combined together using the random-effect, generic inverse variance method of DerSimonian and Laird.

RESULTS: A total of 6 studies with 8,936 participants fulfilled the eligibility criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. The risk of advanced liver fibrosis among patients with NAFLD who were modest alcohol drinkers was significantly lower compared to patients with NAFLD who were non-drinkers with a pooled odds ratio of 0.51 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.35-0.75; I(2) 47%). The funnel plot was symmetric and was not suggestive of publication bias.

CONCLUSION: A significantly lower risk of advanced liver fibrosis was observed among NAFLD patients who were modest alcohol drinkers compared to non-drinkers in this meta-analysis.

23 September 2021 In Cancer

ABSTRACT Background Reducing the alcohol-attributable cancer burden in the WHO European Region is a public health priority. This study aims to estimate the number of potentially avoidable cancers in countries of the WHO European Region in 2019 for three scenarios in which current excise duties on alcoholic beverages were increased by 20%, 50%, or 100%. Methods Mean prices and excise duties for beer, wine, and spirits in the Member States of the WHO European Region in 2020 were used as the baseline scenario.

We assumed that increases in excise duties (20%, 50%, and 100%) were fully incorporated into the consumer price. Beverage-specific price elasticities of demand, with lower elasticities for heavy drinkers, were obtained from a meta-analysis. Model estimates were applied to alcohol exposure data for 2009 and cancer incidence and mortality rates for 2019, assuming a 10-year lag time between alcohol intake and cancer development and mortality. Findings Of 180,887 (95% Confidence interval [CI]: 160,595-201,705) new alcohol-attributable cancer cases and 85,130 (95% CI: 74,920-95,523) deaths in the WHO European Region in 2019, 5·9% (95% CI: 5·6-6·4) and 5·7% (95% CI: 5·4-6·1), respectively, could have been avoided by increasing excise duties by 100%.

According to our model, alcohol-attributable female breast cancer and colorectal cancer contributed most to the avoidable cases and deaths. Interpretation Doubling current alcohol excise duties could avoid just under 6% (or 10,700 cases and 4,850 deaths) of new alcohol-attributable cancers within the WHO European Region, particularly in Member States of the European Union where excise duties are in many cases very low. Funding None.

23 September 2021 In Cardiovascular System
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to characterize associations of total and beverage-specific alcohol consumption with incident atrial fibrillation (AF). BACKGROUND: Although binge drinking and moderate to high consumption of alcohol are both established risk factors for AF, comparatively less is known about the effect of low alcohol consumption and whether associations differ by specific alcoholic beverages. METHODS: Using data from the UK Biobank, total and beverage-specific alcohol consumption was calculated as UK standard drinks (8 g alcohol) per week. Past drinkers and those with a history of AF were excluded. Incident AF events were assessed through hospitalization and death records, and dose-response associations were characterized using Cox regression models with correction for regression dilution bias. RESULTS: We studied 403,281 middle-aged individuals (52.4% female). Over a median follow-up time of 11.4 years (interquartile range: 10.7-12.3), a total of 21,312 incident AF events occurred. A J-shaped association of total alcohol consumption was observed, with lowest risk of AF with fewer than 7 drinks/week. Beverage-specific analyses demonstrated harmful associations of beer/cider consumption with any consumption. In contrast, consumption of red wine, white wine, and spirits up to 10, 8, and 3 drinks/week, respectively, was not associated with increased risk. CONCLUSIONS: In this predominantly White population, low levels of alcohol consumption (
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