26 June 2020 In Diabetes

BACKGROUND: This study aims to examine the association between alcohol consumption and the risk of pre- or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by alcohol-induced flushing response in Korean male adults, particularly based on their body mass index (BMI).

METHODS: This study selected 1,030 (158 non-drinkers, 364 flushers, and 508 non-flushers) male adults who had medical checkups. A logistic regression analysis was used to compare the association between alcohol consumption and the risk of pre- or T2DM.

RESULTS: In both the normal-weight group (BMI /=23 kg/m(2) and 4 and 8 drinks: 2.42, 1.11-5.27). However, obese non-flushers had only a significant higher risk of pre- or T2DM when consuming more than 8 drinks of alcohol per week than the non-drinkers (2.72, 1.39-5.30).

CONCLUSION: These results suggest that obese flushers have an increased risk of developing pre- or T2DM even with less alcohol consumption.

26 June 2020 In Cardiovascular System

BACKGROUND: The causal role of alcohol consumption for cardiovascular disease remains unclear. We used Mendelian randomization (MR) to predict the effect of alcohol consumption on 8 cardiovascular diseases.

METHODS: Up to 94 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were used as instrumental variables for alcohol consumption. Genetic association estimates for cardiovascular diseases were obtained from large-scale consortia and UK Biobank. Analyses were conducted using the inverse variance-weighted, weighted median, MR-PRESSO, MR-Egger, and multivariable MR methods.

RESULTS: Genetically predicted alcohol consumption was consistently associated with stroke and peripheral artery disease across the different analyses. The odds ratios (ORs) per 1-SD increase of log-transformed alcoholic drinks per week were 1.27 ([95% CI, 1.12-1.45] P=2.87x10(-4)) for stroke and 3.05 ([95% CI, 1.92-4.85] P=2.30x10(-6)) for peripheral artery disease in the inverse variance-weighted analysis. There was some evidence for positive associations of genetically predicted alcohol consumption with coronary artery disease (OR, 1.16 [95% CI, 1.00-1.36]; P=0.052), atrial fibrillation (OR, 1.17 [95% CI, 1.00-1.37]; P=0.050), and abdominal aortic aneurysm (OR, 2.60 [95% CI, 1.15-5.89]; P=0.022) in the inverse variance-weighted analysis. These associations were somewhat attenuated in multivariable MR analysis adjusted for smoking initiation. There was no evidence of associations of genetically predicted alcohol consumption with heart failure (OR, 1.00 [95% CI, 0.68-1.47]; P=0.996), venous thromboembolism (OR, 1.04 [95% CI, 0.77-1.39]; P=0.810), and aortic valve stenosis (OR, 1.03 [95% CI, 0.56-1.90]; P=0.926).

CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence of a causal relationship between higher alcohol consumption and increased risk of stroke and peripheral artery disease. The causal role of alcohol consumption for other cardiovascular diseases requires further research.

05 June 2020 In General Health

The association between alcohol consumption and venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk has been investigated by various observational studies with inconsistent results. We examined this association by performing a meta-analysis of prospective studies.

A comprehensive literature search was carried out in the PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science from its inception to February 2020. Pooled effect estimates were calculated using a random effect model. Ten prospective studies (14 cohorts) were included in this meta-analysis with a total of 441,128 individuals and 10,221 VTE cases. Overall, the highest consumption of alcohol was not associated with the VTE risk compared with the lowest group [relative risk (RR), 0.96 (95% CI, 0.89-1.04), P = 0.293]. No obvious heterogeneity of RRs was observed across these studies (P = 0.249 for heterogeneity, I (2) = 18.8%). Egger's and Begg's tests showed no evidence of publication bias (Egger, P = 0.443; Begg, P = 0.730).

In the subgroup analysis by sex, a borderline significant association between alcohol consumption and VTE risk was observed in women [RR, 0.91 (95% CI, 0.82-1.00)]. In the dose-response analysis, we observed a linear decrease in VTE risk with increasing alcohol intake (P = 0.634 for nonlinearity). However, the reduced risk was not statistically significant.

In conclusion, the results from this meta-analysis suggest that alcohol intake is not related with the risk of VTE. Further large well-designed cohort studies are warranted to investigate a potential protective role of alcohol against VTE in women.

04 May 2020 In Cardiovascular System

BACKGROUND/AIM: The association between alcohol consumption and subclinical atherosclerosis is still unclear. Using data from a European multicentre study, we assess subclinical atherosclerosis and its 30-month progression by carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT) measurements, and correlate this information with self-reported data on alcohol consumption.

METHODS: Between 2002-2004, 1772 men and 1931 women aged 54-79 years with at least three risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) were recruited in Italy, France, Netherlands, Sweden, and Finland. Self-reported alcohol consumption, assessed at baseline, was categorized as follows: none (0 g/d), very-low (0 - 5 g/d), low (> 5 to 10 to 10 to 20 g/d for women, > 30 g/d for men). C-IMT was measured in millimeters at baseline and after 30 months. Measurements consisted of the mean and maximum values of the common carotids (CC), internal carotid artery (ICA), and bifurcations (Bif) and whole carotid tree. We used quantile regression to describe the associations between C-IMT measures and alcohol consumption categories, adjusting for sex, age, physical activity, education, smoking, diet, and latitude.

RESULTS: Adjusted differences between median C-IMT values in different levels of alcohol consumption (vs. very-low) showed that moderate alcohol consumption was associated with lower C-IMTmax[- 0.17(95%CI - 0.32; - 0.02)], and Bif-IMTmean[- 0.07(95%CI - 0.13; - 0.01)] at baseline and decreasing C-IMTmean[- 0.006 (95%CI - 0.011; - 0.000)], Bif-IMTmean[- 0.016(95%CI - 0.027; - 0.005)], ICA-IMTmean[- 0.009(95% - 0.016; - 0.002)] and ICA-IMTmax[- 0.016(95%: - 0.032; - 0.000)] after 30 months. There was no evidence of departure from linearity in the association between alcohol consumption and C-IMT.

CONCLUSION: In this European population at high risk of CVD, findings show an inverse relation between moderate alcohol consumption and carotid subclinical atherosclerosis and its 30-month progression, independently of several potential confounders.

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