27 April 2023 In General Health

Previous studies have reported conflicting results on the clinical impact of alcohol consumption on the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). This retrospective cohort study aimed to assess the dose-dependent association between alcohol consumption and the slope of the estimated GFR (eGFR) in 304,929 participants aged 40-74 years who underwent annual health checkups in Japan between April 2008 and March 2011. The association between the baseline alcohol consumption and eGFR slope during the median observational period of 1.9 years was assessed using linear mixed-effects models with the random intercept and random slope of time adjusting for clinically relevant factors. In men, rare drinkers and daily drinkers with alcohol consumptions of >/=60 g/day had a significantly larger decline in eGFR than occasional drinkers (difference in multivariable-adjusted eGFR slope with 95% confidence interval (mL/min/1.73 m(2)/year) of rare, occasional, and daily drinkers with /=60 g/day: -0.33 [-0.57, -0.09], 0.00 [reference], -0.06 [-0.39, 0.26], -0.16 [-0.43, 0.12], -0.08 [-0.47, 0.30], and -0.79 [-1.40, -0.17], respectively).

In women, only rare drinkers were associated with lower eGFR slopes than occasional drinkers. In conclusion, alcohol consumption was associated with the eGFR slope in an inverse U-shaped fashion in men but not in women.

27 April 2023 In General Health

PURPOSE: To assess the association between intakes of total alcohol and individual alcoholic beverages and the incidence of exfoliation glaucoma/glaucoma suspect (XFG/XFGS) status. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 195 408 participants in the Nurses' Health Study (1980-2018), the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2018), and the Nurses' Health Study II (1991-2019) were followed biennially. Eligible participants at each 2-year risk period were >== 40 years and free of XFG/XFGS status with available data on diet and ophthalmic examination findings. METHODS: Cumulatively averaged total (primary exposure) and individual alcoholic beverage (beer, wine, and liquor) intakes from validated dietary information every 2-4 years.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Confirmed incident XFG/XFGS status using medical records. We used per-eye Cox proportional hazards models, accounting for intereye correlations, to estimate multivariate-adjusted relative risks (MVRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: During 6 877 823 eye-years of follow-up, 705 eyes with XFG/XFGS status were documented.

Greater total alcohol consumption was associated significantly with higher XFG/XFGS status risk: the MVRR for XFG/XFGS status for cumulatively averaged alcohol consumption of >==15 g/day or more versus nondrinking was 1.55 (95% CI, 1.17-2.07; P = 0.02 for trend). Long- and short-term alcohol intake was associated significantly with XFG/XFGS status risk, with the strongest associations with cumulatively averaged alcohol intake as of 4 years before diagnosis (MVRR >/= 15 g/day vs. nondrinking, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.25-2.18; P = 0.002 for trend). Compared with nondrinkers, consuming >== 3.6 drinks of beer, wine, or liquor per week was associated with the following MVRRs for XFG/XFGS status: 1.26 (95% CI, 0.89-1.77; P = 0.40 for trend), 1.30 (95% CI, 1.00-1.68; P = 0.15 for trend), and 1.46 (95% CI, 1.15-1.85; P = 0.01 for trend), respectively. We did not observe interactions by age, latitude, residential tier, or intakes of folate or vitamin A (P > 0.40 for interaction); however, the association between alcohol and XFG/XFGS status was suggestively stronger for those without a family history of glaucoma (P = 0.10 for interaction). CONCLUSIONS: Long-term alcohol consumption was associated with a higher risk of XFG/XFGS status. Our findings provide further clues regarding the XFG/XFGS etiology.

27 April 2023 In General Health
Previous cohort studies have reported conflicting associations between alcohol consumption and chronic kidney disease, characterized by proteinuria and low glomerular filtration rate (GFR). This systematic review, which included 14,634,940 participants from 11 cohort studies, assessed a dose-dependent association of alcohol consumption and incidence of proteinuria and low estimated GFR (eGFR) of <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Compared with non-drinkers, the incidence of proteinuria was lower in drinkers with alcohol consumption of =12.0 g/day (relative risk 0.87 [95% confidence interval 0.83, 0.92]), but higher in drinkers with alcohol consumption of 36.1-60.0 g/day (1.09 [1.03, 1.15]), suggesting a J-shaped association between alcohol consumption and the incidence of proteinuria. Incidence of low eGFR was lower in drinkers with alcohol consumption of =12.0 and 12.1-36.0 than in non-drinkers (=12.0, 12.1-36.0, and 36.1-60.0 g/day: 0.93 [0.90, 0.95], 0.82 [0.78, 0.86], and 0.89 [0.77, 1.03], respectively), suggesting that drinkers were at lower risk of low eGFR. In conclusion, compared with non-drinkers, mild drinkers were at lower risk of proteinuria and low eGFR, whereas heavy drinkers had a higher risk of proteinuria but a lower risk of low eGFR. The clinical impact of high alcohol consumption should be assessed in well-designed studies.
23 February 2023 In Drinking Patterns

BACKGROUND: Based on findings of increasing alcohol consumption in older adults, it is important to clarify the health consequences. Using data from the Tromsø study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between different levels of alcohol consumption in old adulthood and self-rated health trajectories and all-cause mortality. METHODS: This is an epidemiological study utilizing repeated measures from the Tromsø study cohort. It allows follow-up of participants from 1994 to 2020.

A total of 24,590 observations of alcohol consumption were made in older adults aged 60-99 (53% women). PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-rated health (SRH) and all-cause mortality. SRH was reported when attending the Tromsø study. Time of death was retrieved from the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry. The follow-up time extended from the age of study entry to the age of death or end of follow-up on November 25, 2020. PREDICTOR: Average weekly alcohol consumption (non-drinker, < 100 g/week, ≥ 100 g/week). We fitted two-level logistic random effects models to examine how alcohol consumption was related to SRH, and Cox proportional hazards models to examine its relation to all-cause mortality.

Both models were stratified by sex and adjusted for sociodemographic factors, pathology, biometrics, smoking and physical activity. In addition, all the confounders were examined for whether they moderate the relationship between alcohol and the health-related outcomes through interaction analyses. RESULTS: We found that women who consumed ≥ 100 g/week had better SRH than those who consumed < 100 g/week; OR 1.85 (1.46-2.34). This pattern was not found in men OR 1.18 (0.99-1.42). We identified an equal mortality risk in both women and men who exceeded 100 g/week compared with those who consumed less than 100 g/week; HR 0.95 (0.73-1.22) and HR 0.89 (0.77-1.03), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There was no clear evidence of an independent negative effect on either self-rated health trajectories or all-cause mortality for exceeding an average of 100 g/week compared to lower drinking levels in this study with up to 25 years follow-up.

However, some sex-specific risk factors in combination with the highest level of alcohol consumption led to adverse effects on self-rated health. In men it was the use of sleeping pills or tranquilisers and  ≥  20 years of smoking, in women it was physical illness and older age.

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