22 March 2016 In Drinking & Eating Patterns

BACKGROUND: Studies conducted on characteristics of binge drinking and associated behaviours in college student populations are scarce especially in France. Hence, it is important to identify risk factors for binge drinking at university, especially those which may be changed. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of binge drinking and associated behaviours across a large sample of college students in Upper Normandy (France).

METHODS: A cross sectional study was performed between November 2009 and February 2013 and data on socioeconomic characteristics and behavioural risk factors were collected: alcohol (consumption and misuse of alcohol, occasional and frequent binge drinking), tobacco, cannabis, cyberaddiction, stress and depression. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was filled out by college student volunteers from Upper Normandy (France) either online or by paper questionnaire. Analyses were performed using multivariate logistic regression models.

RESULTS: A total of 3286 students were included. The mean (Standard Deviation (SD)) age of students was 20.8 years (SD = 2.1) with a male-female ratio of 0.60. The prevalence of binge drinking in the never, occasional and frequent categories was respectively 34.9 %, 51.3 %, and 13.8 %. The mean number of units of alcohol consumed per week (except BD episodes) was 0.78 for never, 3.7 for occasional and 10.5 for frequent binge drinkers (p < 0.0001). A positive relation was observed between frequent binge drinking and the following: male gender (AOR 4.77 95 % CI (3.43-6.63); p < 0.0001), living in rented accommodation AOR 1.70 95 % CI (1.21-2.40; p < 0.0001), attending business school AOR 4.72 95 % CI (2.76-8.08; p < 0.0001), regular practice of sport AOR 1.70 95 % CI (1.24-2.34; p = 0.001), smoking AOR 5.89 95 % CI (4.03-8.60; p < 0.0001), occasional cannabis use AOR 12.66 95 % CI (8.97-17.87;p < 0.0001), and alcohol abuse AOR 19.25 95 % CI (13.4-27.72; p < .0001). A negative association was observed between frequent binge drinking and grant holder status, living in couples, and stress.

CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the spread of binge drinking among college students and identifies student populations at risk: male gender, living in rented accommodation, regular practice of sport, and other risk behaviours such as use of tobacco, cannabis and alcohol. These behaviours increase with the frequency of binge drinking.

22 March 2016 In General Health

BACKGROUND: Pancreatitis is a highly prevalent medical condition associated with a spectrum of endocrine and exocrine pancreatic insufficiencies. While high alcohol consumption is an established risk factor for pancreatitis, its relationship with specific types of pancreatitis and a potential threshold have not been systematically examined.

METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search for studies on the association between alcohol consumption and pancreatitis based on PRISMA guidelines. Non-linear and linear random-effect dose-response meta-analyses using restricted cubic spline meta-regressions and categorical meta-analyses in relation to abstainers were conducted.

FINDINGS: Seven studies with 157,026 participants and 3618 cases of pancreatitis were included into analyses. The dose-response relationship between average volume of alcohol consumption and risk of pancreatitis was monotonic with no evidence of non-linearity for chronic pancreatitis (CP) for both sexes (p = 0.091) and acute pancreatitis (AP) in men (p = 0.396); it was non-linear for AP in women (p = 0.008). Compared to abstention, there was a significant decrease in risk (RR = 0.76, 95%CI: 0.60-0.97) of AP in women below the threshold of 40 g/day. No such association was found in men (RR = 1.1, 95%CI: 0.69-1.74). The RR for CP at 100 g/day was 6.29 (95%CI: 3.04-13.02).

INTERPRETATION: The dose-response relationships between alcohol consumption and risk of pancreatitis were monotonic for CP and AP in men, and non-linear for AP in women. Alcohol consumption below 40 g/day was associated with reduced risk of AP in women. Alcohol consumption beyond this level was increasingly detrimental for any type of pancreatitis.

FUNDING: The work was financially supported by a grant from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (R21AA023521) to the last author.

28 August 2015 In General Health

IMPORTANCE: National epidemiologic information from recently collected data on the new DSM-5 classification of alcohol use disorder (AUD) using a reliable, valid, and uniform data source is needed.

OBJECTIVE: To present nationally representative findings on the prevalence, correlates, psychiatric comorbidity, associated disability, and treatment of DSM-5 AUD diagnoses overall and according to severity level (mild, moderate, or severe).

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We conducted face-to-face interviews with a representative US noninstitutionalized civilian adult (>/=18 years) sample (N = 36309) as the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions III (NESARC-III). Data were collected from April 2012 through June 2013 and analyzed in October 2014.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Twelve-month and lifetime prevalences of AUD.

RESULTS: Twelve-month and lifetime prevalences of AUD were 13.9% and 29.1%, respectively. Prevalence was generally highest for men (17.6% and 36.0%, respectively), white (14.0% and 32.6%, respectively) and Native American (19.2% and 43.4%, respectively), respondents, and younger (26.7% and 37.0%, respectively) and previously married (11.4% and 27.1%, respectively) or never married (25.0% and 35.5%, respectively) adults. Prevalence of 12-month and lifetime severe AUD was greatest among respondents with the lowest income level (1.8% and 1.5%, respectively). Significant disability was associated with 12-month and lifetime AUD and increased with the severity of AUD. Only 19.8% of respondents with lifetime AUD were ever treated. Significant associations were found between 12-month and lifetime AUD and other substance use disorders, major depressive and bipolar I disorders, and antisocial and borderline personality disorders across all levels of AUD severity, with odds ratios ranging from 1.2 (95% CI, 1.08-1.36) to 6.4 (95% CI, 5.76-7.22). Associations between AUD and panic disorder, specific phobia, and generalized anxiety disorder were modest (odds ratios ranged from 1.2 (95% CI, 1.01-1.43) to 1.4 (95% CI, 1.13-1.67) across most levels of AUD severity.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Alcohol use disorder defined by DSM-5 criteria is a highly prevalent, highly comorbid, disabling disorder that often goes untreated in the United States. The NESARC-III data indicate an urgent need to educate the public and policy makers about AUD and its treatment alternatives, to destigmatize the disorder, and to encourage those who cannot reduce their alcohol consumption on their own, despite substantial harm to themselves and others, to seek treatment.

28 August 2015 In General Health

BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption causes multiple comorbidities with potentially negative outcome after operations. The aims are to study the association between alcohol consumption and post-operative non-surgical site infections and mortality and to determine the impact of peri-operative interventions.

METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, and The Cochrane Library were searched systematically. Observational studies reporting patients with a defined amount of alcohol consumption and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) aimed at reducing outcomes were included. Meta-analyses were performed separately for observational studies and RCTs.

RESULTS: Thirteen observational studies and five RCTs were identified. Meta-analyses of observational studies showed more infections in those consuming more than two units of alcohol per day compared with drinking less in both unadjusted and adjusted data. No association between alcohol consumption and mortality was found. Meta-analyses of RCTs showed that interventions reduce infections but not mortality in patients with alcohol abuse.

CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of more than two units of alcohol per day increases post-operative non-surgical site infections. Alcohol-refraining interventions in patients with high daily alcohol consumption appear to reduce infections. The impact in patients with lesser intake is unknown. Further studies are needed.

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