26 January 2022 In Cardiovascular System

The consumption of food for pleasure is mainly associated with adverse health effects. This review was carried out to verify recent reports on the impact of chocolate and wine consumption on cardiovascular health, with a particular focus on atherosclerosis. On one side, these products have proven adverse effects on the cardiovascular system, but on the other hand, if consumed in optimal amounts, they have cardiovascular benefits.

The submitted data suggest that the beneficial doses are 30-50 g and 130/250 mL for chocolate and wine, respectively, for women and men. The accumulated evidence indicates that the active ingredients in the products under consideration in this review are phenolic compounds, characterized by anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiplatelet properties. However, there are also some reports of cardioprotective properties of other compounds such as esters, amines, biogenic amines, amino acids, fatty acids, mineral ingredients, and vitamins.

Our narrative review has shown that in meta-analyses of intervention studies, consumption of chocolate and wine was positively associated with the beneficial outcomes associated with the cardiovascular system. In contrast, the assessment with the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) scale did not confirm this phenomenon.

In addition, mechanisms of action of bioactive compounds present in chocolate and wine depend on some factors, such as age, sex, body weight, and the presence of additional medical conditions. Patients using cardiovascular drugs simultaneously with both products should be alert to the risk of pharmacologically relevant interactions during their use.

Our narrative review leads to the conclusion that there is abundant evidence to prove the beneficial impact of consuming both products on cardiovascular health, however some evidence still remains controversial. Many authors of studies included in this review postulated that well-designed, longitudinal studies should be performed to determine the effects of these products and their components on atherosclerosis and other CVD (Cardiovascular Disease) disease.

26 January 2022 In Cardiovascular System

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the association between alcohol consumption and the prevalence of stroke in Chinese adults aged 40 years and over.

METHOD: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among 113,573 Chinese adults aged >/= 40 years in the China National Stroke Prevention Project (2014-2015) to examine correlations of alcohol consumption with the prevalence of stroke. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), controlling for various confounders, e.g., gender, age, smoking, physical activity and other health conditions.

RESULTS: Within the study population, a total of 12,753 stroke survivors were identified. The prevalence of light to moderate and of heavy alcohol consumption was 10.1% and 5.7% respectively. The multivariate logistic regression results show that light to moderate alcohol consumption was associated with reduced risk of stroke of all types [0.91 (95%CI: 0.85-0.97)] and of ischemic stroke [0.90 (0.84-0.97)]. No association was found between alcohol consumption and hemorrhagic stroke. Compared with abstainers, the adjusted ORs of all stroke were 0.83 (0.75-0.92) for those who drank 11-20 years, and no association was found between 1 and 10 years or over 20 years of drinking and risk of stroke.

CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that light to moderate alcohol consumption may be protective against all and ischemic stroke, and heavy drinking was not significantly associated with risk of all stroke in China. No association between alcohol consumption and hemorrhagic stroke was found.

26 January 2022 In Cancer

PURPOSE: The association between alcohol intake and glioma remains unclear. We evaluated the association between alcohol intake and incidence of glioma in three large, prospective cohort studies with repeated alcohol assessments.

METHODS: We harnessed data from three studies with repeat alcohol assessment to compute hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for glioma by overall alcohol intake and intake from specific beverages using Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusted for age, cohort, body mass index, smoking status, and caloric intake. Analyses were conducted separately for glioma overall and for glioblastoma (GBM).

RESULTS: We confirmed 554 incident glioma cases (362 GBM) among 237,505 participants with 6,216,378 person-years of follow up. Cumulative average alcohol intake was associated with reduced risk of glioma (HR = 0.75, 95%CI:0.56-0.99 comparing > 8-15 to 15 g/d to </= 0.5 g/d). When stratified by sex, for the same comparisons, the HRs for men were 0.57 (95%CI:0.36-0.89) and 0.79 (0.53-1.16), and for women 0.90 (95%CI:0.62-1.30) and 0.62, 95%CI:0.39-0.97. Results were consistent when examining cumulative average, baseline, and recent intake, and with a 4 year lag.

CONCLUSION: These results provide evidence against a positive association between alcohol intake and glioma risk. Alcohol intake was associated with reduced risk of glioma in both men and women.

26 January 2022 In Cancer

Evidence on the impact of diet, alcohol, body-mass index (BMI), and physical activity on mortality due to cancer and other cancer-related outcomes is still scarce. Herein, we reviewed the contribution of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study to the current state of the art on the role of these factors in cancer mortality. We identified 45 studies using a rapid systematic review methodology.

Dietary factors associated with reduced cancer mortality included raw vegetable intake; dietary fiber intake; the Mediterranean diet; other dietary scores; other diet patterns including low meat eaters, vegetarians/vegans, or fish eaters; dietary intake (or biomarkers) of some vitamins (e.g., vitamin D, vitamin K2, or Vitamin C); and intake of lignans. Physical activity and following healthy lifestyle recommendations also reduced cancer mortality risk.

In contrast, dietary factors associated with higher cancer mortality risk included poor diet quality, consumption of alcohol and soft drinks including juice, and, to a lesser extent, intake of some fatty acids. Excess weight and obesity also increased the risk of cancer mortality. The EPIC study holds valuable information on diet and lifestyle factors and offers a unique opportunity to identify key diet-related factors for cancer mortality prevention.

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