26 June 2020 In Cancer
There is no available abstract for this article. You can read the erratum here .
04 May 2020 In General Health

Cancer is a major contributing cause of morbidity and mortality in the Eastern Mediterranean region. The aim of the current study was to estimate the cancer burden attributable to major lifestyle and environmental risk factors.

We used age-, sex- and site-specific incidence estimates for 2012 from IARC's GLOBOCAN, and assessed the following risk factors: smoking, alcohol, high body mass index, insufficient physical activity, diet, suboptimal breastfeeding, infections and air pollution. The prevalence of exposure to these risk factors came from different sources including peer-reviewed international literature, the World Health Organization, noncommunicable disease Risk Factor Collaboration, and the Food and Agriculture Organization. Sex-specific population-attributable fraction was estimated in the 22 countries of the Eastern Mediterranean region based on the prevalence of the selected risk factors and the relative risks obtained from meta-analyses. We estimated that approximately 33% (or 165,000 cases) of all new cancer cases in adults aged 30 years and older in 2012 were attributable to all selected risk factors combined.

Infections and smoking accounted for more than half of the total attributable cases among men, while insufficient physical activity and exposure to infections accounted for more than two-thirds of the total attributable cases among women. A reduction in exposure to major lifestyle and environmental risk factors could prevent a substantial number of cancer cases in the Eastern Mediterranean. Population-based programs preventing infections and smoking (particularly among men) and promoting physical activity (particularly among women) in the population are needed to effectively decrease the regional cancer burden.

21 February 2020 In Cardiovascular System

OBJECTIVE: To examine how a healthy lifestyle is related to life expectancy that is free from major chronic diseases. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study.

SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The Nurses' Health Study (1980-2014; n=73 196) and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2014; n=38 366).

MAIN EXPOSURES: Five low risk lifestyle factors: never smoking, body mass index 18.5-24.9, moderate to vigorous physical activity (>/=30 minutes/day), moderate alcohol intake (women: 5-15 g/day; men 5-30 g/day), and a higher diet quality score (upper 40%).

MAIN OUTCOME: Life expectancy free of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. RESULTS: The life expectancy free of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer at age 50 was 23.7 years (95% confidence interval 22.6 to 24.7) for women who adopted no low risk lifestyle factors, in contrast to 34.4 years (33.1 to 35.5) for women who adopted four or five low risk factors. At age 50, the life expectancy free of any of these chronic diseases was 23.5 (22.3 to 24.7) years among men who adopted no low risk lifestyle factors and 31.1 (29.5 to 32.5) years in men who adopted four or five low risk lifestyle factors. For current male smokers who smoked heavily (>/=15 cigarettes/day) or obese men and women (body mass index >/=30), their disease-free life expectancies accounted for the lowest proportion (</=75%) of total life expectancy at age 50.

CONCLUSION: Adherence to a healthy lifestyle at mid-life is associated with a longer life expectancy free of major chronic diseases.

24 June 2019 In Diabetes

BACKGROUND: Previous studies identified conflicting results about the effects of wine intake on glucose parameters and the risk of cardiovascular diseases in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The present study further investigated the association between wine digestion and these outcomes in T2DM patients.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: A search of PubMed, Embase, and Scopus databases (up to November 2018) was performed for randomized interventional trials which evaluated the effect of wine on blood pressure (BP), glucose parameters and lipid profiles in T2DM people. We used a variety of tests: fixed and random effects models, Q Cochrane test and I index, Egger and Begg tests, forest plots, and sensitivity analysis in our study.

RESULTS: A total of 9 randomized interventional studies were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, significant association between wine intake with diastolic BP (weighted mean difference [WMD] = 0.10; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: -0.01 to 0.20, P = .03 I = 13%) and total cholesterol (TC) (WMD = 0.16, 95% CI: 0.02-0.31, P = .03, I = 6%), whereas no noticeable differences in glucose parameters, systolic BP, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) were identified between wine and controls groups (fasting glucose [FG],WMD = -0.00, 95% CI: -0.58 to 0.58; fasting insulin [FI], -0.22, -2.09 to 1.65; HbAc1%, -0.16, -0.40 to 0.07; systolic blood pressure, 0.12, -0.05 to 0.28; LDLC, -0.02, -0.25 to 0.21; TG, -0.34, -1.31 to 0.64; HDLC, 0.22, -0.08 to 0.53].

CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis revealed that moderate wine consumption among T2DM patients could reduce the level of diastolic blood pressure and TC, but not glucose parameters and other cardiovascular risk factors.

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