21 April 2016 In Drinking & Eating Patterns

To examine the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and adolescent alcoholic beverage preferences and the associated drinking patterns in China. The study used cross-sectional data collected from 136 junior or senior high schools, using a self-administered questionnaire. A total number of 7,075 subjects of drinking students were selected from three metropolises (Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou) via a two-stage stratified sampling method. Among the adolescent drinkers, 87.8% (95% CI: 86.5-89.0) reported that they drunk alcohol during the past years preceding the study, while 42.4% (95% CI: 40.4-44.4) of the subjects stated that they had drunk alcohol during the past 30 days. There were gradual increases in the usual quantity (>1 Standard Drink, SD) of alcoholic beverages with increasing SES, with highest rates reported by the high-level SES. Beer and grape wine were the most widely consumed alcoholic beverage, regardless of SES. Our findings suggest that high-level SES students have an increasing prevalence of drinking behaviour. Their confirmation by future studies which extend the sampling regions is required to further the prevention of adolescent alcohol abuse in China.

21 April 2016 In Drinking & Eating Patterns

BACKGROUND: Adolescent alcohol use varies across Europe. Differences in use might be due to variations in social drinking norms. These norms become apparent, e.g. in different proportions of alcohol drinking types per country. This study's purpose is to cluster European countries according to prevalence rates of alcohol drinking habits among adolescents aged 12-16.

METHODS: Based on results of previously done cluster analyses regarding alcohol use patterns in Europe, a second level hierarchical cluster analysis is performed. To do so, the proportions of each drinking pattern per country (non, mild, episodic, frequent and heavy episodic use) across 25 European countries (N= 48 423,M= 13.83 years, 48.5% male) are used as classifying variables.

RESULTS: Three country clusters are extracted that differentiate between eight countries with 'mainly non-using' adolescents, six countries with adolescents who use alcohol in a 'mainly mild but frequent' way and 11 countries that show the 'highest proportions of (heavy) episodic drinking adolescents'.

CONCLUSIONS: When applying and developing intervention strategies, differences in adolescent alcohol drinking cultures (i.e. social drinking norms) within Europe should be focused on. Alcohol policies and prevention programs should take cultural aspects like social drinking norms into account.

22 March 2016 In Drinking & Eating Patterns

OBJECTIVE To describe the patterns of alcohol consumption in Brazilian adolescents.

METHODS We investigated adolescents who participated in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). This is a cross-sectional, national and school-based study, which surveyed adolescents of 1,247 schools from 124 Brazilian municipalities. Participants answered a self-administered questionnaire with a section on alcoholic beverages consumption. Measures of relative frequency (prevalence), and their 95% confidence intervals, were estimated for the following variables: use of alcohol beverages in the last 30 days, frequency of use, number of glasses or doses consumed in the period, age of the first use of alcohol, and most consumed type of drink. Data were estimated for country and macro-region, sex, and age group. The module survey of the Stata program was used for data analysis of complex sample.

RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents, who accounted for 72.9% of eligible students. About 1/5 of adolescents consumed alcohol at least once in the last 30 days and about 2/3 in one or two occasions during this period. Among the adolescents who consumed alcoholic beverages, 24.1% drank it for the first time before being 12 years old, and the most common type of alcoholic beverages consumed by them were drinks based on vodka, rum or tequila, and beer.

CONCLUSIONS There is a high prevalence of alcohol consumption among adolescents, as well as their early onset of alcohol use. We also identified a possible change in the preferred type of alcoholic beverages compared with previous research.

22 March 2016 In Drinking & Eating Patterns

BACKGROUND: Parents are a major supplier of alcohol to adolescents, often initiating use with sips. Despite harms of adolescent alcohol use, research has not addressed the antecedents of such parental supply. This study investigated the prospective associations between familial, parental, peer, and adolescent characteristics on parental supply of sips.

METHODS: Participants were 1729 parent-child dyads recruited from Grade 7 classes, as part of the Australian Parental Supply of Alcohol Longitudinal Study. Data are from baseline surveys (Time 1) and 1-year follow-up (Time 2). Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regressions tested prospective associations between Time 1 familial, parental, peer, and adolescent characteristics and Time 2 parental supply.

RESULTS: In the fully adjusted model, parental supply was associated with increased parent-report of peer substance use (odds ratio [OR] = 1.20, 95% confidence ratio [CI], 1.08-1.34), increased home alcohol access (OR = 1.07, 95% CI, 1.03-1.11), and lenient alcohol-specific rules (OR=0.88, 95% CI, 0.78-0.99).

CONCLUSIONS: Parents who perceived that their child engaged with substance-using peers were more likely to subsequently supply sips of alcohol. Parents may believe supply of a small quantity of alcohol will protect their child from unsupervised alcohol use with peers. It is also possible that parental perception of peer substance use may result in parents believing that this is a normative behavior for their child's age group, and in turn that supply is also normative. Further research is required to understand the impacts of such supply, even in small quantities, on adolescent alcohol use trajectories.

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