09 August 2019 In General Health

INTRODUCTION: Past research examining the relationship between alcohol use and weight status has not differentiated among classes of obesity. There is limited research investigating whether adults trying to lose weight consume less alcohol.

METHODS: In 2018-2019, the authors analyzed 2011-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data for nonpregnant adults aged >/=20 years with BMI >/=18.5 kg/m(2). Multinomial and binomial logistic regression and linear regression were used to test associations between (1) past-year alcohol use and current weight status, differentiating among Class 1, 2, and 3 obesity, and (2) past-year weight loss attempt and alcohol use, controlling for potential confounders. Analyses were stratified by sex.

RESULTS: Male current drinkers versus nondrinkers had lower odds of Class 3 obesity versus healthy weight (AOR=0.62, 95% CI=0.42, 0.92); female current drinkers versus nondrinkers had lower odds of Class 1 (AOR=0.67, 95% CI=0.50, 0.90), Class 2 (AOR=0.62, 95% CI=0.46, 0.83), and Class 3 (AOR=0.66, 95% CI=0.49, 0.89) obesity versus healthy weight. Among current drinkers, less frequent alcohol use was associated with higher odds of Class 1-3 obesity versus healthy weight in both sexes (p<0.05), whereas higher continued volume (heavier drinking) was associated with higher odds of Class 1-3 obesity versus healthy weight in females (p=0.049). Females reporting a weight loss attempt had higher odds of current drinking and more frequent heavy drinking.

CONCLUSIONS: Lower frequency of alcohol use (both sexes) and higher continued volume (female adults only) are associated with higher odds of higher weight status. Female adults trying to lose weight drink more, despite guidelines suggesting reducing caloric intake for weight control.

09 August 2019 In General Health

The relationship between alcohol drinking and chronic kidney damage, mainly including declined glomerular filtration rate (GFR), proteinuria, and end-stage renal disease, was conflicting. Thus, a meta-analysis was conducted to investigate their potential associations. PubMed and Web of Science were searched to identify prospective studies assessing the associations between alcohol drinking and chronic kidney damage published up to March 2019. Random-effects model was employed to pool the relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Subgroup meta-analyses stratified by the basic characteristics of subjects were performed. A total of 15 cohort studies were included in the present study, with 268,723 participants and 31,766 incident cases. Participants with low (/=60 g/d) insignificantly increased 7% risk of chronic kidney damage (RR: 1.07, 95% CI: 0.53 to 2.15). No obvious heterogeneity and no publication bias were observed. Based on our meta-analysis, participants with alcohol drinking less than 60 g/d were at lower risk of declined GFR, especially in men or participants aged less than 55 yrs. Much more prospective cohort studies are required to confirm our present findings.

09 August 2019 In General Health

BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption is a common modifiable lifestyle factor. Alcohol may be a risk factor for frailty, however, there is limited evidence in the literature.

OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to examine the association of alcohol consumption with the risk of incident frailty.

METHODS: This is a prospective panel study of 2544 community-dwelling people aged 60 years and older in England. Frailty status defined by frailty phenotype criteria was measured at baseline and 4 years later. Participants free of frailty at baseline were divided into 5 groups based on quantity of self-reported alcohol consumption per week with cut-points at 0, 7, 14, and 21 UK units per week. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) were calculated for incident frailty according to the alcohol consumption using logistic regression models.

RESULTS: Compared with the low consumption group (>0 and 21 units per week) had a significantly lower incident frailty risk (unadjusted OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.270.75, P < .01), which became nonsignificant on adjustment for sociodemographic factors (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.371.13, P = .12).

CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS: We found that nondrinkers were more likely than those with low alcohol consumption to develop frailty, but this appeared to be explained by poorer baseline health status. No evidence was found for an association between high levels of alcohol consumption and becoming frail. Future studies with information on life-course history of alcohol use, especially for those classified as nondrinkers in old age, are warranted.

09 August 2019 In General Health
BACKGROUND: Although a number of studies have examined the association between alcohol intake and hip fractures, few have considered specific alcoholic beverages separately. OBJECTIVES: We prospectively assessed total alcohol and specific alcoholic beverage consumption and risk of hip fractures in US men and women. METHODS: Health, lifestyle information, and hip fractures were self-reported on biennial questionnaires between 1980 and 2014 in 75,180 postmenopausal women from the Nurses' Health Study, and between 1986 and 2014 in 38,398 men aged >/=50 y from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Diet was assessed approximately every 4 y with a semiquantitative FFQ. RRs were computed for hip fracture using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: We ascertained 2360 incident low trauma hip fractures in women and 709 in men. Among women, RRs for low trauma hip fractures compared with nondrinkers were 0.89 (95% CI: 0.80, 0.99) for an average daily consumption of <5.0 g, 0.81 (95% CI: 0.70, 0.94) for 5.0 to <10.0 g, 0.83 (95% CI: 0.71, 0.96) for 10.0 to <20.0 g, and 0.93 (95% CI: 0.78, 1.10) for >/=20.0 g. Among men, risk declined linearly with higher alcohol consumption (P-trend = 0.002). Multivariable RR compared with nondrinkers was 0.77 (95% CI: 0.59, 1.01), 0.69 (0.49, 0.96), and 0.67 (0.48, 0.95) for an average intake of 10 g/d to <20 g/d, 20 g/d to <30 g/d, and 30.0 g/d or more, respectively. In women, the alcoholic beverage most significantly associated with hip fracture risk was red wine (RR per serving = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.79). In men, there was no clear association with specific alcoholic beverages. CONCLUSION: In these 2 US cohorts, low to moderate alcohol consumption, when compared with no consumption, was associated with a lower risk of hip fractures, particularly with red wine consumption among women.
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