24 June 2019 In General Health

OBJECTIVES: Alcohol consumption is the fifth leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. The development and promotion of lower strength alcohol products may help reduce alcohol consumption and associated harms. This study assessed what a sample of UK weekly drinkers perceived to be the target groups and occasions for drinking wines and beers labelled with different verbal and numerical descriptors of lower alcohol strength.

DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: 3390 adults (1697 wine and 1693 beer drinkers) were sampled from a nationally representative UK panel, and participated in a between-subjects experiment in which participants were randomised to 1 of 18 groups with one of three levels of verbal descriptor (Low vs. Super Low vs. No verbal descriptor) and six levels of %ABV (five levels varying for wine and beer, and no level given).

MEASURES: The study gauged participants' perceptions of the type of person that would find the randomised beverage appealing and the type of occasion on which the beverage is likely to be drunk at.

RESULTS: A principal component analysis showed that participants perceived pregnant women, sportspeople and those aged 6-13 years old were the target groups for products labelled with 0%ABV or the verbal descriptors Low or Super Low, whereas men, women, and those aged above 18 were perceived as the target groups for products labelled with higher %ABV. Participants also rated the products labelled with 0%ABV or the verbal descriptors Low or Super Low as targeting consumption on weekday lunches, whereas products labelled with higher %ABV were rated as targeting dinner/evening occasions, including parties, holidays and celebrations.

CONCLUSIONS: Lower strength products were seen as targeting non-traditional consumers (pregnant women) and occasions (weekday lunchtimes), suggesting these products may be perceived as extensions to regular strength alcoholic drinks rather than as substitutes for them.

24 June 2019 In Drinking Patterns

BACKGROUND: To compare patterns of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm from a survey of university students sampled from universities in Denmark, England, Germany, Italy, Portugal and Switzerland.

METHODS: A total of 2191 university students (70% female, 90% white ethnic group, age range 18-25) completed the survey. Participants completed measures of demographic variables (age, age of onset, ethnic group and sex) and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), which was the primary outcome.

RESULTS: Sixty-three percent of the sample scored negative for harmful drinking on the AUDIT (<8), with 30% categorized as hazardous drinkers, 4% harmful drinkers and 3% with probable dependence. Analysis of variance, including demographic factors as covariates, identified a main effect of country on AUDIT scores F(5, 2086) = 70.97, P < 0.001, partial eta square = 0.15. AUDIT scores were highest in England (M = 9.99; SD = 6.17) and Denmark (M = 9.52; SD = 4.86) and lowest in Portugal (M = 4.90; degrees = 4.60). Post hoc tests indicated large effect size differences between scores in Denmark and England and scores in all other countries (0.79 < d < 0.94; all P's < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: European university students in our sample mainly reported low risk patterns of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm. However, students from Northern European countries had significantly higher AUDIT scores compared with students from Central and Southern European countries. Research is needed to replicate the present study using nationally representative samples to estimate the prevalence of alcohol use disorders among university students in different European countries.

24 June 2019 In Diabetes

BACKGROUND: Previous studies identified conflicting results about the effects of wine intake on glucose parameters and the risk of cardiovascular diseases in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The present study further investigated the association between wine digestion and these outcomes in T2DM patients.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: A search of PubMed, Embase, and Scopus databases (up to November 2018) was performed for randomized interventional trials which evaluated the effect of wine on blood pressure (BP), glucose parameters and lipid profiles in T2DM people. We used a variety of tests: fixed and random effects models, Q Cochrane test and I index, Egger and Begg tests, forest plots, and sensitivity analysis in our study.

RESULTS: A total of 9 randomized interventional studies were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, significant association between wine intake with diastolic BP (weighted mean difference [WMD] = 0.10; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: -0.01 to 0.20, P = .03 I = 13%) and total cholesterol (TC) (WMD = 0.16, 95% CI: 0.02-0.31, P = .03, I = 6%), whereas no noticeable differences in glucose parameters, systolic BP, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) were identified between wine and controls groups (fasting glucose [FG],WMD = -0.00, 95% CI: -0.58 to 0.58; fasting insulin [FI], -0.22, -2.09 to 1.65; HbAc1%, -0.16, -0.40 to 0.07; systolic blood pressure, 0.12, -0.05 to 0.28; LDLC, -0.02, -0.25 to 0.21; TG, -0.34, -1.31 to 0.64; HDLC, 0.22, -0.08 to 0.53].

CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis revealed that moderate wine consumption among T2DM patients could reduce the level of diastolic blood pressure and TC, but not glucose parameters and other cardiovascular risk factors.

24 June 2019 In Diabetes

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcohol consumption correlates with type 2 diabetes through its effects on insulin resistance, changes in alcohol metabolite levels, and anti-inflammatory effects. We aim to clarify association between frequency of alcohol consumption and risk of diabetes in Taiwanese population.

METHODS: The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) in 2001, 2005, and 2009 selected a representative sample of Taiwan population using a multistage sampling design. Information was collected by standardized face to face interview. Study subjects were connected to the Taiwan National Health Insurance claims dataset and National Register of Deaths Dataset from 2000 to 2013. Kaplan-Meier curve with log rank test was employed to assess the influence of alcohol drinking on incidence of diabetes. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional regression were used to recognize risk factors of diabetes.

RESULTS: A total of 43,000 participants were included (49.65% male; mean age, 41.79 +/- 16.31 years). During the 9-year follow-up period, 3650 incident diabetes cases were recognized. Kaplan-Meier curves comparing the four groups of alcohol consumption frequency showed significant differences (p < 0.01). After adjustment for potentially confounding variables, compared to social drinkers, the risks of diabetes were significantly higher for non-drinkers (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-1.34; p < 0.01), regular drinkers (AHR = 1.19; 95% CI, 1.06-1.35; p < 0.01), and heavy drinkers (AHR = 2.21, 95% CI, 1.56-3.13, p < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS: Social drinkers have a significantly decreased risk of new-onset diabetes compared with non-, regular, and heavy drinkers.

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