31 March 2023 In Phenolic compounds

Emerging evidence suggests that diets rich in plant-based foods and beverages may exert plausible effects on human health tackling the risk of chronic diseases. Although the data are promising for numerous outcomes, including cardiovascular diseases, the data on mental health are limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between individual polyphenol-rich beverages intake and mental health outcomes, such as perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and sleep quality, among adult individuals living in the Mediterranean area. The demographic and dietary characteristics of a sample of 1572 adults living in southern Italy were analysed.

Multivariate logistic regression analyses, controlling for confounding factors, were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the association between individual polyphenol-rich and alcoholic beverages containing polyphenols and mental health outcomes.

The multivariate model adjusted for background covariates and the Mediterranean diet showed that individuals with a moderate intake (up to 1 cup/glass per day) of coffee and tea were less likely to have high perceived stress (OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.45-0.84) and depressive symptoms (OR = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.39-0.80), respectively. Furthermore, regular coffee and moderate/regular red wine drinkers were less likely to have depressive symptoms (OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.54-0.95 and OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.54-0.99, respectively).

No significant associations were retrieved for the intake of polyphenol-rich and alcoholic beverages and sleep quality. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that polyphenol-rich beverages may be associated with mental health, in terms of depressive symptoms and perceived stress. Nonetheless, further research exploring how the polyphenol-rich beverages impact brain health and what the optimal patterns of consumption are for different populations are warranted.

31 March 2023 In Phenolic compounds

BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota profiles are closely related to cardiovascular diseases through mechanisms that include the reported deleterious effects of metabolites, such as trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), which have been studied as diagnostic and therapeutic targets. Moderate red wine (RW) consumption is reportedly cardioprotective, possibly by affecting the gut microbiota.

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of RW consumption on the gut microbiota, plasma TMAO, and the plasma metabolome in men with documented coronary artery disease (CAD) using a multiomics assessment in a crossover trial. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, crossover, controlled trial involving 42 men (average age, 60 y) with documented CAD comparing 3-wk RW consumption (250 mL/d, 5 d/wk) with an equal period of alcohol abstention, both preceded by a 2-wk washout period.

The gut microbiota was analyzed via 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing. Plasma TMAO was evaluated by LC-MS/MS. The plasma metabolome of 20 randomly selected participants was evaluated by ultra-high-performance LC-MS/MS. The effect of RW consumption was assessed by individual comparisons using paired tests during the abstention and RW periods.

RESULTS: Plasma TMAO did not differ between RW intervention and alcohol abstention, and TMAO concentrations showed low intraindividual concordance over time, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.049 during the control period. After RW consumption, there was significant remodeling of the gut microbiota, with a difference in beta diversity and predominance of Parasutterella, Ruminococcaceae, several Bacteroides species, and Prevotella. Plasma metabolomic analysis revealed significant changes in metabolites after RW consumption, consistent with improved redox homeostasis.

CONCLUSIONS: Modulation of the gut microbiota may contribute to the putative cardiovascular benefits of moderate RW consumption. The low intraindividual concordance of TMAO presents challenges regarding its role as a cardiovascular risk biomarker at the individual level. This study was registered at clinical trials.gov as NCT03232099.

31 March 2023 In Dementia

IMPORTANCE: The impact of serial changes in alcohol consumption on dementia risk has rarely been investigated to date.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of comprehensive patterns of changes in alcohol consumption with the incidence of all-cause dementia, Alzheimer disease (AD), and vascular dementia (VaD).

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This is a retrospective cohort study.

Data were obtained from the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. Adults aged 40 years and older underwent 2 health examinations in 2009 and 2011. The cohort was assessed until December 31, 2018, and statistical analysis was performed in December 2021.

EXPOSURES: Alcohol consumption level was categorized into none (0 g per day), mild (/=30 g per day) drinking. On the basis of changes in alcohol consumption level from 2009 to 2011, participants were categorized into the following groups: nondrinker, quitter, reducer, sustainer, and increaser.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was newly diagnosed AD, VaD, or other dementia.

RESULTS: Among 3 933 382 participants (mean [SD] age, 55.0 [9.6] years; 2 037 948 men [51.8%]), during a mean (SD) follow-up of 6.3 (0.7) years, there were 100 282 cases of all-cause dementia, 79 982 cases of AD, and 11 085 cases of VaD. Compared with sustained nondrinking, sustained mild (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.79; 95% CI, 0.77-0.81) and moderate (aHR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.79-0.88) drinking were associated with a decreased risk of all-cause dementia, whereas sustained heavy drinking was associated with an increased risk of all-cause dementia (aHR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.03-1.12).

Compared with sustained levels of drinking, reducing alcohol consumption from a heavy to a moderate level (aHR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.86-0.99) and the initiation of mild alcohol consumption (aHR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.90-0.96) were associated with a decreased risk of all-cause dementia. Increasers and quitters exhibited an increased risk of all-cause dementia compared with sustainers. The trends in AD and VaD remained consistent.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this cohort study of a Korean population, decreased risk of dementia was associated with maintaining mild to moderate alcohol consumption, reducing alcohol consumption from a heavy to a moderate level, and the initiation of mild alcohol consumption, suggesting that the threshold of alcohol consumption for dementia risk reduction is low.

31 March 2023 In Dementia

BACKGROUND: The identification of effective dementia prevention strategies is a major public health priority, due to the enormous and growing societal cost of this condition. Consumption of a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has been proposed to reduce dementia risk. However, current evidence is inconclusive and is typically derived from small cohorts with limited dementia cases. Additionally, few studies have explored the interaction between diet and genetic risk of dementia.

METHODS: We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to explore the associations between MedDiet adherence, defined using two different scores (Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener [MEDAS] continuous and Mediterranean diet Pyramid [PYRAMID] scores), and incident all-cause dementia risk in 60,298 participants from UK Biobank, followed for an average 9.1 years.

The interaction between diet and polygenic risk for dementia was also tested. RESULTS: Higher MedDiet adherence was associated with lower dementia risk (MEDAS continuous: HR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.65-0.91; PYRAMID: HR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.73-1.02 for highest versus lowest tertiles). There was no significant interaction between MedDiet adherence defined by the MEDAS continuous and PYRAMID scores and polygenic risk for dementia. CONCLUSIONS: Higher adherence to a MedDiet was associated with lower dementia risk, independent of genetic risk, underlining the importance of diet in dementia prevention interventions.

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