24 June 2019 In Dementia

BACKGROUND: Alcohol use has been identified as a risk factor for dementia and cognitive decline. However, some patterns of drinking have been associated with beneficial effects.

METHODS AND RESULTS: To clarify the relationship between alcohol use and dementia, we conducted a scoping review based on a systematic search of systematic reviews published from January 2000 to October 2017 by using Medline, Embase, and PsycINFO. Overall, 28 systematic reviews were identified: 20 on the associations between the level of alcohol use and the incidence of cognitive impairment/dementia, six on the associations between dimensions of alcohol use and specific brain functions, and two on induced dementias. Although causality could not be established, light to moderate alcohol use in middle to late adulthood was associated with a decreased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Heavy alcohol use was associated with changes in brain structures, cognitive impairments, and an increased risk of all types of dementia.

CONCLUSION: Reducing heavy alcohol use may be an effective dementia prevention strategy.

24 June 2019 In Dementia

AIM: To evaluate the association between the amount and frequency of alcohol consumption and incident dementia in older Japanese adults using large sample size data over a long follow-up period.

METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study carried out in Japan. A total of 53 311 older adults were followed from 2008 to 2014. A health checkup questionnaire was used to assess the amount and frequency of alcohol consumption. The Dementia Scale of long-term care insurance was used as a measure of incident dementia. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate adjusted hazard ratios, with their 95% confidence intervals, for the incidence of dementia across the categories of alcohol consumption by sex.

RESULTS: During a 7-year follow-up period, 14 479 participants were regarded as having incident dementia. Compared with non-drinkers, the multivariate adjusted hazard ratios for participants with alcohol consumption 2 units per day, occasionally (0.91, 95% 0.71-1.16 in men and 1.09, 95% 0.72-1.67 in women) and daily (0.89, 95% 0.81-1.00 in men and 1.16, 95% 0.84-1.81 in women) were not significant.

CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol consumption of </=2 units per day, occasionally or daily, could reduce the risk of incident dementia, with greater benefit for men with such daily consumption. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2019; **: **-**.

24 June 2019 In Dementia

AIMS: Alcohol consumption is a modifiable and plausible risk factor for age-related cognitive decline but more longitudinal studies investigating the association are needed. Our aims were to estimate associations of adult-life alcohol consumption and consumption patterns with age-related cognitive decline.

METHODS: We investigated the associations of self-reported adult-life weekly alcohol consumption and weekly extreme binge drinking (>/=10 units on the same occasion) with changes in test scores on an identical validated test of intelligence completed in early adulthood and late midlife in 2498 Danish men from the Lifestyle and Cognition Follow-up study 2015. Analyses were adjusted for year of birth, retest interval, baseline IQ, education and smoking.

RESULTS: Men with adult-life alcohol consumption of more than 28 units/week had a larger decline in IQ scores from early adulthood to late midlife than men consuming 1-14 units/week (B29-35units/week = -3.6; P < 0.001). Likewise, a 1-year increase in weekly extreme binge drinking was associated with a 0.12-point decline in IQ scores (P < 0.001). Weekly extreme binge drinking explained more variance in IQ changes than average weekly consumption. In analyses including mutual adjustment of weekly extreme binge drinking and average weekly alcohol consumption, the estimated IQ decline associated with extreme binge drinking was largely unaffected, whereas the association with weekly alcohol consumption became non-significant.

CONCLUSIONS: Adult-life heavy alcohol consumption and extreme binge drinking appear to be associated with larger cognitive decline in men. Moreover, extreme binge drinking may be more important than weekly alcohol consumption in relation to cognitive decline.

24 June 2019 In Cardiovascular System

BACKGROUND: Light-to-moderate alcohol drinking reduces the risk of ischemic heart disease, and this effect of alcohol is mainly explained by alcohol-induced elevation of HDL cholesterol. Hypo-HDL cholesterolemia is a potent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to clarify how alcohol relates to cardiovascular risk factors in men with hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia.

METHODS: The subjects were middle-aged men with hypo-HDL cholesterolemia (< 40mg/dl), and they were divided into four groups by daily alcohol consumption (non-; light, < 22g ethanol/day; moderate, >/=22g ethanol and /=44g ethanol/day). Each risk factor was compared among the groups after adjustment for age and histories of smoking and regular exercise.

RESULTS: Systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels, log-transformed lipid accumulation product and log-transformed cardio-metabolic index were significantly higher in moderate and heavy drinkers than in nondrinkers. Log-transformed triglycerides and triglycerides-to-HDL cholesterol ratio were significantly higher in light, moderate and heavy drinkers than in nondrinkers and tended to be higher with an increase of alcohol intake. LDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol-to-HDL cholesterol ratio were significantly lower in light, moderate and heavy drinkers than in nondrinkers and tended to be lower with an increase of alcohol intake. The above trends for the relationships of alcohol drinking with the cardiovascular risk factors were also found in multivariate logistic regression analysis.

CONCLUSIONS: In men with hypo-HDL cholesterolemia, alcohol drinking shows positive associations with blood pressure and triglycerides and an inverse association with LDL cholesterol.

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