04 May 2020 In Diabetes

BACKGROUND: A Mediterranean-style eating pattern is consistently associated with a decreased diabetes risk in Mediterranean and European populations. However, results in U.S. populations are inconsistent. The objective of this study was to assess whether a Mediterranean-style eating pattern would be associated with diabetes risk in a large, nationally representative U.S. cohort of black and white men and women.

METHODS: Participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study prospective cohort without diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or cancer at baseline (visit 1, 1987-1989; n = 11,991) were included (mean age 54 years, 56% female, 75% white). Alternate Mediterranean Diet scores (aMed) were calculated using the mean dietary intake self-reported at visit 1 and visit 3 (1993-1995) or visit 1 only for participants censored before visit 3. Participants were followed from visit 1 through 31 December 2016 for incident diabetes. We used Cox regression models to characterize associations of aMed (quintiles as well as per 1-point higher) with incident diabetes adjusted for energy intake, age, sex, race and study center, and education (Model 1) for all participants then stratified by race and body mass index (BMI). Model 2 included potential mediating behavioral and clinical measures associated with diabetes. Results are presented as hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals.

RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 22 years, there were 4024 incident cases of diabetes. Higher aMed scores were associated with lower diabetes risk [Model 1: 0.83 (0.73-0.94) for Q5 vs Q1 (p-trend < 0.001) and 0.96 (0.95-0.98) for 1-point higher]. Associations were stronger for black vs white participants (interaction p < 0.001) and weaker for obese vs normal BMI (interaction p < 0.01). Associations were attenuated but statistically significant in Model 2.

CONCLUSIONS: An eating pattern high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts, and fish, and moderate in alcohol was associated with a lower risk of diabetes in a community-based U.S. population.

04 May 2020 In Diabetes

We aimed to determine the association between alcohol consumption change on fasting serum glucose, insulin resistance, and beta cell function.

The study population consisted of 55,858 men from the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study. Participants were divided into non-, light, moderate, and heavy drinkers for each of the first and second health examinations based on a self-reported questionnaire on alcohol consumption. The adjusted mean values for change in fasting serum glucose (FSG), homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and beta cell function (HOMA-beta) levels were determined according to alcohol consumption change by linear regression. Compared to sustained initial drinkers, those who increased alcohol intake to moderate (p < 0.001) and heavy (p < 0.001) levels had increased FSG levels.

In contrast, reduction in alcohol intake to light levels among initial heavy drinkers was associated with reduced change in FSG levels (p = 0.007) compared to sustained heavy drinkers. No significant associations were observed between changes in alcohol intake with HOMA-IR levels. Compared to sustained light drinkers, those who increased alcohol intake to moderate (p < 0.001) and heavy (p = 0.009) levels had lower increases in HOMA-beta levels.

Finally, compared to sustained heavy drinkers, those who reduced alcohol consumption to light levels had greater increases in HOMA-beta levels (p = 0.002). Increases in alcohol consumption were associated with higher blood glucose levels and worsened beta cell function. Heavy drinkers who reduce alcohol intake could benefit from improved blood glucose control via improved beta cell function.

04 May 2020 In Dementia

Although heavy alcohol consumption has been identified as a risk factor for adverse cognitive functioning, it currently remains unclear whether moderate alcohol consumption exerts similar effects. Observational studies previously reported the potential benefits of moderate alcohol consumption on cognition, particularly in the elderly; however, these effects have not yet been demonstrated in Asian populations.

The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between alcohol consumption levels and global and domain-specific cognitive functions in cognitively intact elderly Japanese men. Cross-sectional data from the Shiga Epidemiological Study of Subclinical Atherosclerosis (SESSA), an ongoing prospective, population-based study in Shiga, Japan, were used to examine the relationship between alcohol consumption and cognitive function. Men (n = 585) aged >/=65 years provided information on their weekly consumption of alcohol, and the data obtained were used to construct categories of never, ex- (quit before interview), very light (23-46 g/day), and heavy (>46 g/day) drinkers.

Cognitive function was measured using the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI). A fractional logistic regression model adjusted for age, education, body mass index, smoking, exercise, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia showed that the CASI scores for global and domain-specific cognitive functions were not significantly different between all subgroups of current drinkers and never-drinkers.

However, the CASI score of ex-drinkers (multivariable adjusted mean CASI score [SD]) was significantly lower than that of never-drinkers in the global [never vs. ex: 90.16 (2.21) vs. 88.26 (2.58)] and abstraction and judgment domain [never vs. ex: 9.48 (0.46) vs. 8.61 (0.57)]).

The present results do not suggest any beneficial or adverse relationship between current alcohol consumption levels and cognitive functioning (both global and domain specific) in elderly Japanese men; however, low cognitive function among ex-drinkers warrants future investigations to identify the factors causing drinkers to quit.

04 May 2020 In Cardiovascular System

The effects of alcohol on cardiovascular health are heterogeneous and vary according toconsumption dose and pattern.

These effects have classically been described as having a J-shapedcurve, in which low-to-moderate consumption is associated with less risk than lifetime abstention,and heavy drinkers show the highest risk. Nonetheless, the beneficial effects of alcohol have beenquestioned due to the difficulties in establishing a safe drinking threshold.

This review focuses onthe association between alcohol consumption and cardiovascular risk factors and the underlyingmechanisms of damage, with review of the literature from the last 10 years.

Page 8 of 48

Contact us

We love your feedback. Get in touch with us.

  • Tel: +32 (0)2 230 99 70
  • Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Disclaimer

The authors have taken reasonable care in ensuring the accuracy of the information herein at the time of publication and are not responsible for any errors or omissions. Read more on our disclaimer and Privacy Policy.