18 August 2023 In General Health

Background A lifestyle comprising a healthy diet, light alcohol consumption, no smoking, and moderate or intense physical activity has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We examined the association of a healthy lifestyle index (HLI), derived from scores for each of these components plus waist circumference, with the risk of incident CVD and CVD subtypes in postmenopausal women with normal body mass index (18.5-63 years), body mass index (</>/= 22.0 kg/m(2)), and general health status (absence/presence of hypertension, diabetes, or lipid-lowering drug use) also showed inverse associations between HLI and risk of CVD. Conclusions Among postmenopausal women with a normal body mass index, adherence to a healthy lifestyle is associated with a reduced risk of clinical CVD and CVD subtypes, underscoring the cardiovascular benefits of maintaining a healthy lifestyle, even for women with a healthy weight.

18 August 2023 In General Health

The association between socioeconomic status (SES) and alcohol-related diseases has been widely explored. Less is known, however, on whether the association of moderate drinking with all-cause mortality is modified by educational level (EL). Using harmonized data from 16 cohorts in the MORGAM Project (N = 142,066) the association of pattern of alcohol intake with hazard of all-cause mortality across EL (lower = primary-school; middle = secondary-school; higher = university/college degree) was assessed using multivariable Cox-regression and spline curves. A total of 16,695 deaths occurred in 11.8 years (median). In comparison with life-long abstainers, participants drinking 0.1-10 g/d of ethanol had 13% (HR = 0.87; 95%CI: 0.74-1.02), 11% (HR = 0.89; 0.84-0.95) and 5% (HR = 0.95; 0.89-1.02) lower rate of death in higher, middle and lower EL, respectively. Conversely, drinkers > 20 g/d had 1% (HR = 1.01; 0.82-1.25), 10% (HR = 1.10; 1.02-1.19) and 17% (HR = 1.17; 1.09-1.26) higher rate of death. The association of alcohol consumption with all-cause mortality was nonlinear, with a different J-shape by EL levels. It was consistent across both sexes and in various approaches of measuring alcohol consumption, including combining quantity and frequency and it was more evident when the beverage of preference was wine. We observed that drinking in moderation (</= 10 g/d) is associated with lower mortality rate more evidently in individuals with higher EL than in people with lower EL, while heavy drinking is associated with higher mortality rate more evidently in individuals with lower EL than in people with higher EL, suggesting that advice on reducing alcohol intake should especially target individuals of low EL.

18 August 2023 In General Health

BACKGROUND: Glomerular hyperfiltration has been reported to be associated with adverse renal outcomes in general population. It is not known whether drinking pattern is associated with the risk of glomerular hyperfiltration in healthy individuals.

METHODS: We prospectively followed middle-aged 8,640 Japanese men with normal renal function, no proteinuria, no diabetes, and no use of antihypertensive medications at entry. Data on alcohol consumption were gathered by questionnaire. Glomerular hyperfiltration was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >/=117 mL/min/1.73 m(2), which was the upper 2.5th percentile value of eGFR in the entire cohort.

RESULTS: During 46,186 person-years of follow-up, 330 men developed glomerular hyperfiltration. In a multivariate model, for men who consumed alcohol on 1-3 days per week, alcohol consumption of >/=69.1g ethanol/drinking day was significantly associated with the risk of glomerular hyperfiltration (hazard ratio (HR), 2.37 (95% CI, 1.18-4.74)) compared with non-drinkers. For those who consumed alcohol on 4-7 days per week, higher alcohol consumption per drinking day was associated with a higher risk of glomerular hyperfiltration: the HRs (95% CI) for alcohol consumption of 46.1-69.0, and >/=69.1 g ethanol/drinking day were 1.55 (1.01-2.38), and 1.78 (1.02-3.12), respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: For high drinking frequency per week, more alcohol intake per drinking day was associated with an increased risk of glomerular hyperfiltration, while for low drinking frequency per week, only very high alcohol intake per drinking day was associated with an increased risk of glomerular hyperfiltration in middle-aged Japanese men.

18 August 2023 In General Health

Alcohol use is causally linked to the development of and mortality from numerous diseases. The aim of this study is to provide an update to a previous systematic review of meta-analyses that quantify the sex-specific dose-response risk relationships between chronic alcohol use and disease occurrence and/or mortality. An updated systematic search of multiple databases was performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses criteria to identify meta-analyses published from January 1, 2017, to March 8, 2021, which quantified the risk relationships between chronic alcohol use and the risk of disease occurrence and/or mortality. This systematic review was not preregistered. The comparator was people who have never consumed at least one standard drink of alcohol. Measurements included relative risks, odds ratios, and hazard ratios of disease occurrence and/or mortality based on long-term alcohol intake measured in grams per day. The systematic search yielded 5953 articles, of which 14 were included in the narrative review. All diseases showed an increased risk of occurrence as alcohol use increased. At all doses examined, alcohol had a significant detrimental effect on tuberculosis, lower respiratory infections, oral cavity and pharyngeal cancers, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, laryngeal cancer, epilepsy, hypertension, liver cirrhosis, and pancreatitis (among men). For ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, and intracerebral hemorrhage, protective effects from low-dose chronic alcohol use among both men and women were observed. Low-dose alcohol consumption also had a protective effect for diabetes mellitus and pancreatitis among women (approximately to 50 g/day and 30 g/day, respectively). Alcohol use increases the risk of numerous infectious and noncommunicable diseases in a dose-response manner. Higher levels of alcohol use have a clear detrimental impact on health; however, at lower levels of use, alcohol can have both disease-specific protective and detrimental effects.

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