28 September 2023 In Dementia

BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders have been categorized as a 'strongly modifiable' risk factor for dementia. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cross-sectional association between alcohol consumption and cognition in older adults and if it is different across sexes or depends on amyloid-beta (Abeta) accumulation in the brain. METHODS: Cognitively unimpaired older adults (N = 4387) with objective and subjective cognitive assessments and amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) imaging were classified into four categories based on their average daily alcohol use.

Multivariable linear regression was then used to test the main effects and interactions with sex and Abeta levels. RESULTS: Individuals who reported no alcohol consumption had lower scores on the Preclinical Alzheimer Cognitive Composite (PACC) compared to those consuming one or two drinks/day. In sex-stratified analysis, the association between alcohol consumption and cognition was more prominent in females. Female participants who consumed two drinks/day had better performance on PACC and Cognitive Function Index (CFI) than those who reported no alcohol consumption.

In an Abeta-stratified sample, the association between alcohol consumption and cognition was present only in the Abeta- subgroup.

The interaction between Abeta status and alcohol consumption on cognition was not significant. CONCLUSION: Low or moderate consumption of alcohol was associated with better objective cognitive performance and better subjective report of daily functioning in cognitively unimpaired individuals. The association was present only in Abeta- individuals, suggesting that the pathophysiologic mechanism underlying the effect of alcohol on cognition is independent of Abeta pathology. Further investigation is required with larger samples consuming three or more drinks/day.

28 September 2023 In Osteoporosis

OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to examine the relationship between alcohol consumption and hip osteoarthritis in women.

Alcohol has been associated with both adverse and beneficial health effects generally; however, the relationship between alcohol consumption and hip osteoarthritis has been minimally studied.

METHODS: Among women in the Nurses' Health Study cohort in the US, alcohol consumption was assessed every 4 years, starting in 1980.

Intake was computed as cumulative averages and simple updates with latency periods of 0-4 through 20-24 years. We followed 83,383 women without diagnosed osteoarthritis in 1988 to June 2012. We identified 1,796 cases of total hip replacement due to hip osteoarthritis defined by self-report of osteoarthritis with hip replacement. RESULTS: Alcohol consumption was positively associated with hip osteoarthritis risk.

Compared with nondrinkers, multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were HR 1.04 (95% CI 0.90, 1.19) for drinkers of >0 to /=20 grams/day (P for trend < 0.0001).

This association held in latency analyses of up to 16-20 years, and for alcohol consumption between 35-40 years of age.

Independent of other alcoholic beverages, the multivariable HRs (per 10 grams of alcohol) were similar for individual types of alcohol intake (wine, liquor, and beer; P = 0.57 for heterogeneity among alcohol types).

CONCLUSION: Higher alcohol consumption was associated with greater incidence of total hip replacement due to hip osteoarthritis in a dose-dependent manner in women.

28 September 2023 In Osteoporosis

INTRODUCTION: Osteoporosis prevalence will increase in coming decades, with significant financial and economic implications. Whilst alcohol excess has significant detrimental impacts on bone mineral density (BMD), knowledge of low-volume consumption is inconsistent. Type of alcohol may mediate impact on BMD and warrants further investigation.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants were drawn from the Florey Adelaide Male Aging Study, a cohort of community dwelling men from Adelaide, Australia (n = 1195). The final cohort (n = 693) provided information regarding alcohol consumption and undertook BMD scan at wave one (2002-2005) and wave two (2007-2010). Cross-sectional and longitudinal multivariable regression was performed for whole-body and spine BMD. To assess change in exposure over time, change in BMD was compared to change in covariates between waves.

RESULTS: Cross-sectionally, whole-body BMD was positively associated with obesity (p < 0.001), exercise (p = 0.009), prior smoking (p = 0.001), oestrogen concentration (p = 0.001), rheumatoid arthritis (p = 0.013) and grip strength (p < 0.001).

No association was identified with volume of differing types of alcohol consumed. Spinal BMD was inversely associated with low-strength beer consumption (p = 0.003). The volume of alcohol consumed at Wave 1 did not predict change in whole-body or spinal BMD; however, increases in full-strength beer consumption between waves were associated with reduced spinal BMD (p = 0.031). CONCLUSION: When consumed at quantities in the usual social range, alcohol was not associated with whole-body BMD. However, low-strength beer consumption was inversely related to spinal BMD.

18 August 2023 In Pregnant Women

INTRODUCTION: According to a precautionary principle, it is recommended that pregnant women and women trying to conceive abstain from alcohol consumption. In this dose-response meta-analysis, we aimed to examine the association between alcohol consumption and binge drinking and the risk of miscarriage in the first and second trimesters.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Library in May 2022, without any language, geographic or time limitations. Cohort or case-control studies reporting dose-specific effects adjusting for maternal age and using separate risk assessments for first- and second-trimester miscarriages were included. Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. This study is registered with PROSPERO, registration number CRD42020221070.

RESULTS: A total of 2124 articles were identified. Five articles met the inclusion criteria. Adjusted data from 153 619 women were included in the first-trimester analysis and data from 458 154 women in the second-trimester analysis. In the first and second trimesters, the risk of miscarriage increased by 7% (odds ratio [OR] 1.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.96-1.20) and 3% (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.99-1.08) for each additional drink per week, respectively, but not to a statistically significant degree. One article regarding binge drinking and the risk of miscarriage was found, which revealed no association between the variables in either the first or second trimester (OR 0.84 [95% CI 0.62-1.14] and OR 1.04 [95% CI 0.78-1.38]).

CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis revealed no dose-dependent association between miscarriage risk and alcohol consumption, but further focused research is recommended. The research gap regarding miscarriage and binge drinking needs further investigation.

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