23 September 2021 In Liver Disease
Background and Objective: There is no consensus regarding modest alcohol consumption in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) due to conflicting results. The aim of this meta-analysis was to examine the effects of modest alcohol consumption on histological severity, histological course, hepatocellular carcinoma, and long-term clinical outcomes in NAFLD patients. Methods: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE databases from inception to October 2020 for studies evaluating the effects of modest alcohol consumption among patients with NAFLD. A random-effects meta-analysis using pooled odds ratio (OR) and hazard ratio (HR) was calculated with 95% confidence interval (CI). Study quality was assessed with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Results: Fourteen cross-sectional or cohort studies with aggregate data on 14,435 patients were included in the analysis. Modest alcohol consumption resulted in lower risks for steatohepatitis (OR 0.59; 95% CI 0.45-0.78; I (2) = 12%) and advanced fibrosis (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.36-0.95; I (2) = 75%). Histological follow-up data showed that modest alcohol use was associated significantly with less steatohepatitis resolution but not with fibrosis progression. The HR for developing hepatocellular carcinoma was 3.77 (95% CI 1.75-8.15; I (2) = 0%). NAFLD patients with modest alcohol intake had a lower mortality risk than lifelong abstainers (HR 0.85; 95% CI 0.75-0.95; I (2) = 64%). Conclusion: This meta-analysis suggests that medical advice for modest alcohol drinking should be made cautiously in caring for an individual patient based on the clinical context. Practically, patients with steatohepatitis or advanced fibrosis should avoid alcohol use, whereas patients with low fibrosis risk may be allowed for modest and safe drinking.
23 September 2021 In Liver Disease
Background: Recent studies have suggested an association between modest alcohol consumption and a decreased risk of advanced liver fibrosis among patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) although the results are inconsistent. The current systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to comprehensively investigate this possible association by identifying all the relevant studies and combining their results. Methods: A comprehensive literature review was conducted utilizing the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases through February 2019 to identify all cross-sectional studies that compared the prevalence of advanced liver fibrosis among NAFLD patients who were modest alcohol drinkers to NAFLD patients who were non-drinkers. Effect estimates from each study were extracted and combined together using the random-effect, generic inverse variance method of DerSimonian and Laird. Results: A total of 6 studies with 8,936 participants fulfilled the eligibility criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. The risk of advanced liver fibrosis among patients with NAFLD who were modest alcohol drinkers was significantly lower compared to patients with NAFLD who were non-drinkers with a pooled odds ratio of 0.51 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.35-0.75; I(2) 47%). The funnel plot was symmetric and was not suggestive of publication bias. Conclusion: A significantly lower risk of advanced liver fibrosis was observed among NAFLD patients who were modest alcohol drinkers compared to non-drinkers in this meta-analysis.
23 September 2021 In Diabetes
Importance: Women with gestational diabetes are at high risk for type 2 diabetes. Identifying modifiable dietary and lifestyle factors, such as alcohol intake, that can be useful in delaying or preventing progression to overt type 2 diabetes is of particular interest. Objective: To evaluate the association between alcohol consumption and risk for type 2 diabetes among women with a history of gestational diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included women from the Nurses' Health Study II cohort who reported a history of gestational diabetes and were followed up from January 1, 1991, to December 31, 2017, as part of the Diabetes & Women's Health Study. Data analysis was performed from 2020 to 2021. Exposures: Dietary intakes, including alcohol, were assessed every 4 years using validated food-frequency questionnaires. Main Outcomes and Measures: Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for the association of alcohol intake with risk for incident type 2 diabetes after a pregnancy during which gestational diabetes was diagnosed. Results: A total of 4740 women were included in the study; the mean (SD) age at baseline was 38.2 (5.0) years, and the median follow-up time was 24 years (interquartile range, 18-28 years), resulting in 78328 person-years of follow-up. During this period, 897 incident cases of type 2 diabetes were reported. After adjustment for major dietary and lifestyle factors, compared with women who did not consume any alcohol, only alcohol consumption of 5.0 to 14.9 g/d was associated with decreased risk for incident type 2 diabetes (HR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.33-0.61); there was no association of alcohol consumption of 0.1 to 4.9 g/d or 15.0 g/d or more (maximum, 74.2 g/d) with risk of type 2 diabetes (0.1 to 4.9 g/d: HR, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.73-1.03]; >/=15.0 g/d: HR, 0.62 [95% CI, 0.37-1.04]). After additional adjustment for body mass index, women who reported alcohol consumption of 5.0 to 14.9 g/d had a 41% lower risk for developing incident type 2 diabetes (HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.42-0.81); consumption of 0.1 to 4.9 g/d and consumption of 15.0 g/d or more were still not associated with risk of type 2 diabetes, but the results were attenuated (0.1-4.9 g/d: HR, 1.02 [95% CI, 0.85-1.23]; >/=15.0 g/d: HR, 0.75 [95% CI, 0.42-1.33]). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, among women with a history of gestational diabetes, usual alcohol intake of 5.0 to 14.9 g/d (approximately 0.5-1 drinks per day) was associated with a lower risk for type 2 diabetes. These findings should be interpreted in the context of other known risks and benefits of alcohol consumption when considering clinical recommendations for individual women with a history of gestational diabetes.
23 September 2021 In Cancer
BACKGROUND: Whether there are lifetime points of greater sensitivity to the deleterious effects of alcohol intake on the breasts remains inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: To compare the influence of distinctive trajectories of alcohol consumption throughout a woman's life on development of breast cancer (BC). METHODS: 1278 confirmed invasive BC cases and matched (by age and residence) controls from the Epi-GEICAM study (Spain) were used. The novel group-based trajectory modelling was used to identify different alcohol consumption trajectories throughout women's lifetime. RESULTS: Four alcohol trajectories were identified. The first comprised women (45%) with low alcohol consumption (/=15 g/day), never having a low alcohol consumption. Comparing with the first trajectory, the fourth doubled BC risk (OR 2.19; 95% CI 1.27, 3.77), followed by the third (OR 1.44; 0.96, 2.16) and ultimately by the second trajectory (OR 1.17; 0.86, 1.58). The magnitude of BC risk was greater in postmenopausal women, especially in those with underweight or normal weight. When alcohol consumption was independently examined at each life stage, >/=15 g/day of alcohol consumption in adolescence was strongly associated with BC risk followed by consumption in adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: The greater the alcohol consumption accumulated throughout life, the greater the risk of BC, especially in postmenopausal women. Alcohol consumption during adolescence may particularly influence BC risk.
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