26 January 2023 In Cancer

Experimental evidence suggests that alcohol induces cutaneous carcinogenesis, yet epidemiological studies on the link between alcohol intake and skin cancer have been inconsistent. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) is a prospective cohort initiated in 1992 in 10 European countries. Alcohol intake at baseline and average lifetime alcohol intake were assessed using validated country-specific dietary and lifestyle questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated in Cox models. A total of 14 037 skin cancer cases (melanoma: n = 2457; basal-cell carcinoma (BCC): n = 8711; squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC): n = 1928; unknown: n = 941) were identified among 450 112 participants (average follow-up: 15 years). Baseline alcohol intake was positively associated with SCC (>15 vs 0.1-4.9 g/day: HR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.17-1.77; P(trend) = .001), BCC (HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.01-1.23; P(trend) = .04), and melanoma risks in men (HR = 1.17, 95% CI = 0.95-1.44; P(trend) = .17), while associations were more modest in women (SCC: HR = 1.09, 95% CI = 0.90-1.30; P(trend) = .13; BCC: HR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.00-1.17, P(trend) = .03; melanoma: HR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.80-1.08, P(trend) = .13). Associations were similar for lifetime alcohol intake, with an attenuated linear trend. Lifetime liquor/spirit intake was positively associated with melanoma (fourth vs first quartile: HR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.08-1.99; P(trend) = .0009) and BCC risks in men (HR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.04-1.31; P(trend) = .14). Baseline and lifetime intakes of wine were associated with BCC risk (HR = 1.25 in men; HR = 1.11-1.12; in women). No statistically significant associations were found between beverage types and SCC risk. Intake of beer was not associated with skin cancer risk. Our study suggests positive relationships between alcohol intake and skin cancer risk, which may have important implications for the primary prevention of skin cancer.

25 January 2023 In Phenolic compounds

Resveratrol is a bioactive polyphenolic compound mainly present in grapes and red wine.

It is known to exert beneficial effects in various experimental settings, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, and immunoregulatory.

Accumulating evidence suggests these health benefits might be, at least partially, attributed to resveratrol's role in protecting the intestinal barrier, regulating the gut microbiome, and inhibiting intestinal inflammation.

The purpose of this review is to examine the bioactivities of resveratrol in disease prevention and health promotion from the standpoint of regulating the gut microbiome.

The article aims to provide additional insight into the potential applications of resveratrol in the food and nutraceutical industry.

25 January 2023 In Phenolic compounds

We analyzed 3344 publications concerned with the health-related effects of resveratrol that occurs in wine and grapes. We discovered that publication activity increased until 2010 and decreased slightly afterwards.

The most frequent author keywords were classified into six groups: (1) beverage-related keywords, (2) compound-related keywords, (3) disease-related keywords, (4) effect-related keywords, (5) mechanism-related keywords, and (6) broader keywords.

By means of reference publication year spectroscopy, we analyzed and discussed the most frequently cited references (i.e., key papers) within the publication set. A rather large portion of the key papers exhibit a deliberative or positive attitude and report on the health effects of resveratrol, although limited data in humans preclude drawing unambiguous conclusions on its health-related benefits. From our analysis, we could not identify specific publications that provide a distinct change of direction of the ongoing scientific discourse. Moderate red wine consumption seems to bear the potential of being health promoting, whereas excessive alcohol consumption can induce liver cirrhosis and cancer.

25 January 2023 In Phenolic compounds

Background: Resveratrol is a polyphenol chemical that naturally occurs in many plant-based dietary products, most notably, red wine. Discovered in 1939, widespread interest in the potential health benefits of resveratrol emerged in the 1970s in response to epidemiological data on the cardioprotective effects of wine. Objective: To explore the background of resveratrol (including its origins, stability, and metabolism), the metabolic effects of resveratrol and its mechanisms of action, and a potential future role of dietary resveratrol in the lifestyle management of obesity.

Data sources: We performed a narrative review, based on relevant articles written in English from a Pubmed search, using the following search terms: "resveratrol", "obesity", "Diabetes Mellitus", and "insulin sensitivity". Results: Following its ingestion, resveratrol undergoes extensive metabolism. This includes conjugation (with sulfate and glucuronate) within enterocytes, hydrolyzation and reduction within the gut through the action of the microbiota (with the formation of metabolites such as dihydroresveratrol), and enterohepatic circulation via the bile.

Ex vivo studies on adipose tissue reveal that resveratrol inhibits adipogenesis and prevents the accumulation of triglycerides through effects on the expression of Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and sirtuin 1, respectively. Furthermore, resveratrol induces anti-inflammatory effects, supported by data from animal-based studies. Limited data from human-based studies reveal that resveratrol improves insulin sensitivity and fasting glucose levels in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and may improve inflammatory status in human obesity.

Although numerous mechanisms may underlie the metabolic benefits of resveratrol, evidence supports a role in its interaction with the gut microbiota and modulation of protein targets, including sirtuins and proteins related to nitric oxide, insulin, and nuclear hormone receptors (such as PPARgamma). Conclusions: Despite much interest, there remain important unanswered questions regarding its optimal dosage (and how this may differ between and within individuals), and possible benefits within the general population, including the potential for weight-loss and improved metabolic function. Future studies should properly address these important questions before we can advocate the widespread adoption of dietary resveratrol supplementation.

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