25 January 2019 In Drinking & Eating Patterns

INTRODUCTION: Age of first drink is a key risk factor for adolescent high-risk alcohol use. The current study examined whether speed of escalation from first drink to first intoxication is an additional risk factor, and whether these two factors are associated with binge and high-intensity drinking among adolescents.

METHODS: Data collected in 2005-2017 from a nationally-representative sample of 11,100 U.S. 12th grade students participating in the Monitoring the Future study were coded to indicate grade of first drink, grade of first intoxication, and speed of escalation from first drink to first intoxication. Logistic regression models estimated bivariate and multivariable odds of past 2-week binge (5+ drinks in a row) and high-intensity (10+ drinks in a row) drinking in 12th grade.

RESULTS: Of those who reported intoxication by 12th grade, almost 60% reported first drunkenness in the same grade in which they first drank. The likelihoods of 12th grade binge and high-intensity drinking were significantly associated with both grade of first drink and speed of escalation to intoxication. Past two-week high-intensity drinking prevalence was 17.4% among those with immediate (same-grade) escalation from first drink to first intoxication; 15.8% among those with a 1-grade delay, and 12.6% among those with a 2+ grade delay to intoxication.

CONCLUSIONS: The majority of students escalate quickly from having their first drink to being intoxicated for the first time. Both earlier age of first drink and a faster escalation from first drink to first intoxication are important indicators of binge and high-intensity drinking risk among adolescents.

25 January 2019 In General Health

Alcoholic beverages, specifically wine, have been consumed for many years. Wine is postulated to play an important role in the improvement of cardiovascular risk factors. Most epidemiological studies have found sustained consumption at light-to-moderate amounts to increase HDL cholesterol, reduce platelet aggregation, and promote fibrinolysis. Wine consumption has been inversely associated with ischemic heart disease, and the alcohol-blood pressure association, in most studies, follows a J-shaped curve. These outcomes have been attributed to the molecular constituents of wine, namely ethanol and polyphenols. Due to the continued interest in wine as a biological beverage, we review the chemistry of wine as clinicians, including its chemical composition, viticulture and enological practices, and other chemical factors that influence the bioactive components of wine. We also outline the biological effects of wine components and directions for future research.

25 January 2019 In Pregnant Women

AIM: This paper systematically reviews the literature on the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on early child development from birth to 5 years with the aim to synthesize the developmental outcomes associated with prenatal alcohol exposure, and inform further research to improve our knowledge of the manifestations of prenatal alcohol exposure.

METHODS: Electronic databases (MEDLINE, Psych INFO, and Psych ARTICLES) were searched to find papers on the developmental outcomes of prenatal alcohol exposure in neonates, infants and toddlers and pre-school aged children. Studies were selected based on participants self-reporting alcohol consumption during pregnancy (either prospectively or retrospectively) and/or children being diagnosed with FASD based on a standardized assessment that includes a dysmorphology examination. The search was limited to peer-reviewed, English language studies involving human subjects, up to 5.5 years old.

RESULTS: Out of the 1,684 titles screened, a total of 71 papers were identified as relevant and included in this review. The majority of studies were prospective longitudinal studies. A range of assessment modalities (or tools) was used to determine neurodevelopmental outcomes of prenatal exposure to alcohol in the age group under review, the most frequently described being the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID) (n = 19). Studies varied in terms of the dose, frequency, and timing of alcohol consumption during pregnancy and methodology used to assess alcohol consumption. Findings demonstrate extensive evidence for poor global developmental outcomes in children prenatally exposed to alcohol, particularly with moderate to severe levels of prenatal alcohol exposure.

CONCLUSION: The outcomes related to lower levels of prenatal alcohol exposure as well as outcomes in specific developmental domains, are poorly understood. Further research should aim to clarify the more subtle or less easily measurable manifestations of prenatal alcohol exposure on early development when the potential for greatest impact of interventions is highest.

25 January 2019 In Pregnant Women

OBJECTIVES: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is a worldwide problem. Maternal alcohol consumption is an important risk factor for FASD. It remains unknown which alcohol consumption patterns most strongly predict FASD. The objective of this study was to identify these.

DESIGN: Systematic literature review.

METHODS: We searched in PubMed, PsychINFO, PsycARTICLES, ERIC, CINAHL, Embase and MEDLINE up to August 2018. The query consisted of keywords and their synonyms related to FASD, pregnancy and behaviour. Studies were excluded when not published in English, were reviews or involved non-human subjects. Substantial heterogeneity precluded aggregation or meta-analysis of the data. Instead, data were qualitatively inspected.

RESULTS: In total, 21 studies were eligible for further data analysis. All studies that measured both maternal alcohol drinking behaviours and FASD reported retrospective data on maternal drinking patterns, employing both continuous and categorical measures and exhibiting substantial heterogeneity in measures of alcohol consumption (eg, timing of exposure, quantification of alcohol measure and definition of a standard drink). Study quality improved over time and appeared higher for studies based on active case ascertainment, especially when conducted in schools and when behaviour was assessed through interviews.

CONCLUSIONS: We aimed to identify specific maternal drinking behaviour(s) related to FASD. The state of the literature precludes such conclusions. Evidence-based preventive measures necessitate identifying which prenatal alcohol drinking behaviour(s) are most in need of intervention. Therefore, we formulate three recommendations for future research. First, future studies can optimise the value of the collected dataset through specifying measurements and reporting of maternal drinking behaviours and avoiding categorised measures (nominal or ordinal) whenever possible. Second, samples should not be selected based on FASD status, but instead, FASD status as well as maternal alcohol consumption should both be measured in a general population sample. Finally, we provide 10 reporting guidelines for FASD research.

Page 7 of 61

Contact us

We love your feedback. Get in touch with us.

  • Tel: +32 (0)2 230 99 70
  • Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Disclaimer

The authors have taken reasonable care in ensuring the accuracy of the information herein at the time of publication and are not responsible for any errors or omissions. Read more on our disclaimer and Privacy Policy.