Pregnant Women

The consumption of alcoholic beverages in pregnant women can cause malformations of the embryo and their offspring may exhibit symptoms of foetal alcohol effects, or a collection of foetal alcohol effects called foetal alcohol syndrome; this relationship has been established for heavy alcohol consumption. A no-effect level to prevent harming the unborn child, however,  has not been established. This is the reason why alcoholic beverages should be avoided during pregnancy.

 

The above summary provides an overview of the topic, for more details and specific questions, please refer to the articles in the database.

Prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with a constellation of adverse physical, neurocognitive and behavior outcomes, which comprise a continuum of disorders labeled Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Extant research has consistently identified executive functions (EF) as a central impairment associated with FASD. Despite this, heterogeneity exists regarding the strength of the association between FASD and different EF, and this association has not yet been quantitatively synthesized. The current meta-analysis reviews 46 studies that compare children and adolescents with FASD to participants without FASD, on a variety of EF measures. In accordance with Miyake et al. Cognitive Psychology, 41, 49-100 (2000) three-factor model of EF, findings for the primary EF domains of working memory, inhibition, and set shifting are reviewed. Results…
OBJECTIVE: to assess the prevalence and pattern of alcohol consumption pre-conception and/or during the first trimester using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test - Consumption (AUDIT-C) and T-ACE (Tolerance, Annoyance, Cut Down and Eye-Opener) alcohol screening questionnaires, and determine the socio-demographic predictors of drinking in this time period. DESIGN: cross sectional survey of a consecutive sample of 500 pregnant women attending their first antenatal appointment at approximately 10-11 weeks gestation. SETTING: two antenatal clinics in the South West of England. FINDINGS: of the 409 women respondents, we found a quarter of women reported drinking alcohol despite being aware they are pregnant. Between two to three in every 100 women reported drinking six or more…
Data on the relation between moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and behavioral disorders are inconsistent, and this raises new questions.We examined (1) the association between moderate PAE and problem behaviors and (2) whether these associations differed by levels of socioeconomic status (SES), fetal smoke exposure, or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Data were taken from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) study. Parents evaluated children's behaviors using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Results showed a slight, but insignificant, increase of problem behaviors in children with moderate PAE. In 3- to 6-year-olds, PAE had a stronger effect on hyperactivity/inattention in combination with fetal smoke exposure (odds ratio = 2.82), than did PAE alone.…
BACKGROUND: Research on alcohol consumption during pregnancy and miscarriage spans over three decades, yet the relationship is still not well-understood. OBJECTIVES: To assess the relationship between volume and type of alcohol consumed during pregnancy in relation to miscarriage. METHODS: We utilized data from a population-based cohort study of pregnant women (n = 1061) of which 172 (16%) women had a miscarriage. Upon study entry, participants were asked about their alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Based on the average number of drinks per week, women were categorized into one of three categories: four or more drinks per week (n = 32, 3%), less than four drinks per week (n = 403, 38%), and no alcohol intake (n = 626, 59%). In addition,…
Background: Many pregnant women continue to drink alcohol despite clinical recommendations and public health campaigns about the risks associated with alcohol use during pregnancy. This review examines the predictors of prenatal alcohol use, with the long-term goal of developing more effective preventive efforts. Methods: A literature search of several databases for relevant articles was undertaken. Studies were included if they occurred in the context of antenatal care, collected data during the woman's pregnancy (between 1999 and 2009), investigated predictors of any drinking, had a population-based orientation (e.g., did not focus only on high-risk drinkers), and were published in English in a scientific peer-reviewed journal between 1999 and 2009. Results: Fourteen studies published between 2002 and 2009 fulfilled the inclusion criteria…
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