Pregnant Women

The consumption of alcoholic beverages in pregnant women can cause malformations of the embryo and their offspring may exhibit symptoms of foetal alcohol effects, or a collection of foetal alcohol effects called foetal alcohol syndrome; this relationship has been established for heavy alcohol consumption. A no-effect level to prevent harming the unborn child, however,  has not been established. This is the reason why alcoholic beverages should be avoided during pregnancy.

 

The above summary provides an overview of the topic, for more details and specific questions, please refer to the articles in the database.

BACKGROUND: Deficits in information processing may be a core deficit after fetal alcohol exposure. This study was designed to investigate the possible effects of weekly low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking episodes in early pregnancy on choice reaction time (CRT) and information processing time (IPT) in young children. METHOD: Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At the age of 60-64 months, 1,333 children were administered a modified version of the Sternberg paradigm to assess CRT and IPT. In addition, a test of general intelligence (WPPSI-R) was administered. RESULTS: Adjusted for a wide range of potential confounders, this study showed no significant effects of average weekly maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy on CRT or…
OBJECTIVE: Epidemiologic studies have reported conflicting results regarding maternal alcohol consumption before and during pregnancy, and the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs). However, a systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between maternal alcohol consumption and CHDs in offspring has not been conducted. DESIGN: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for articles catalogued between their inception and February 16, 2015; we identified relevant published studies that assessed the association between maternal alcohol consumption and CHD risk. Two authors independently assessed the eligibility of the retrieved articles and extracted data from them. Study-specific relative risk estimates were pooled by random-effects or fixed-effects models. RESULTS: From the 1527 references, a total of 19 case-control studies and four cohort studies were enrolled in…
BACKGROUND: It is now well accepted in pediatrics and obstetrics that prenatal alcohol is a teratogenic agent and the primary causative factor underlying fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs), although for the majority of the 20th century that knowledge was either unknown or ignored. At least 2 factors contributed to the delay in recognizing alcohol's role in teratogenicity: the rejection of earlier evidence pertaining to alcohol and pregnancy following the repeal of Prohibition in the United States, Canada, and several European countries; and misinterpretation of earlier research findings in a eugenic rather than toxicological context. The pervasive belief held well into the 1970s that there was no risk to either mother or fetus from prenatal alcohol posed a major challenge to…
Prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with a constellation of adverse physical, neurocognitive and behavior outcomes, which comprise a continuum of disorders labeled Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Extant research has consistently identified executive functions (EF) as a central impairment associated with FASD. Despite this, heterogeneity exists regarding the strength of the association between FASD and different EF, and this association has not yet been quantitatively synthesized. The current meta-analysis reviews 46 studies that compare children and adolescents with FASD to participants without FASD, on a variety of EF measures. In accordance with Miyake et al. Cognitive Psychology, 41, 49-100 (2000) three-factor model of EF, findings for the primary EF domains of working memory, inhibition, and set shifting are reviewed. Results…
OBJECTIVE: to assess the prevalence and pattern of alcohol consumption pre-conception and/or during the first trimester using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test - Consumption (AUDIT-C) and T-ACE (Tolerance, Annoyance, Cut Down and Eye-Opener) alcohol screening questionnaires, and determine the socio-demographic predictors of drinking in this time period. DESIGN: cross sectional survey of a consecutive sample of 500 pregnant women attending their first antenatal appointment at approximately 10-11 weeks gestation. SETTING: two antenatal clinics in the South West of England. FINDINGS: of the 409 women respondents, we found a quarter of women reported drinking alcohol despite being aware they are pregnant. Between two to three in every 100 women reported drinking six or more…
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