Phenolic compounds

 

Wine contains phenolic compounds (polyphenols) which give wine its characteristic colour and flavour and are produced by plants in response to fungal infection, ultraviolet light, and various chemical and physical stressors, especially during ripening. They are extracted from the seeds and skins of grapes during fermentation of winemaking, when the juice is in contact with the grape skins and seeds. The amount of polyphenols in red wine is generally greater than white wine because the red juice has longer contact with the grape skins during fermentation enabling more phenolic substances to be extracted into the red juice.

There is evidence that certain polyphenols, such as resveratrol, anthocyanins, flavonols and catechins in wine provide health benefits. Furthermore, rather than polyphenols themselves, their metabolites might be the real key players in cardiovascular and cancer protection. Researchers have shown that these polyphenols in wine act as antioxidants and are five times more potent than the benchmark antioxidant, vitamin E. These antioxidants are believed to reduce the damage caused by the body's free radicals (toxic waste products) which contribute to causing degenerative diseases in the body such as cancer, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and ageing.

The polyphenols may also aid in inhibiting the oxidative transformation of ‘bad’ LDL cholesterol and thus, preventing the accumulation of this oxidised LDL cholesterol in the artery wall which eventually could block the blood flow and cause a heart attack or stroke.

These findings support the overwhelming and still growing body of scientific research indicating that moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages is associated with lower levels of coronary heart disease as well as with better health and lower mortality, especially when consumed in combination with
a healthy diet.

 

The above summary provides an overview of the topic, for more details and specific questions, please refer to the articles in the database.

 

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with a nonalcoholic red wine extract (RWE), including resveratrol and polyphenols, on insulin sensitivity and Sirt1 expression in nondiabetic humans. The present study was a single-arm, open-label and prospective study. Twelve subjects received supplementation with RWE, including 19.2 mg resveratrol and 136 mg polyphenols, daily for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks, metabolic parameters, including glucose/lipid metabolism and inflammatory markers, were evaluated. mRNA expression of Sirt1 was evaluated in isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs). Additionally, Sirt1 and phosphorylated AMP-activated kinase (p-AMPK) expression were evaluated in cultured human monocytes (THP-1 cells). Supplementation with RWE for 8 weeks decreased the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), which indicates…
Inflammation, thrombosis and oxidative stress are rarely studied together when wine's biological activity is concerned; hence the existing literature lacks a holistic point of view in the biological outcome. The scope of the present study is to parallel evaluate the effect of wine extracts on those mechanisms. Ten wine varieties and two different extraction methods were used leading to five extracts for each wine: total lipids (TL) and fractions with different phenolic compound classes (FI, FII, FIII and FIV). Their effect on oxidative stress, platelet aggregation and the secretion of cytokines from mononuclear cells was measured and a biological score was calculated. FII of white wines is the most potent extract and the extracts FIII and TL are following. Specifically,…
BACKGROUND: Effects of resveratrol on metabolic health have been studied in several short-term human clinical trials, with conflicting results. Next to dose, the duration of the clinical trials may explain the lack of effect in some studies, but long-term studies are still limited. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 6-mo resveratrol supplementation on metabolic health outcome parameters. METHODS: Forty-one overweight men and women (BMI: 27-35 kg/m2; aged 40-70 y) completed the study. In this parallel-group, double-blind clinical trial, participants were randomized to receive either 150 mg/d of resveratrol (n = 20) or placebo (n = 21) for 6 mo. The primary outcome of the study was insulin sensitivity, using the Matsuda index. Secondary outcome…
Polyphenols are antioxidants contained in plants as olive and grape. As part of the Mediterranean diet, they may decrease the risk of cancer, of chronic and neurodegenerative diseases. Alcohol consumption plays a detrimental effect on health, causing tissue damage and disrupting the metabolism of Neurotrophins (NTs). NTs are crucial proteins for the life cycle of neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Alcohol abuse elicits changes in NTs levels in the brain and in other target organs, however, it was observed minor damage in animals early exposed to red wine, probably due to the antioxidant effects of polyphenols. Indeed, data show that resveratrol or other polyphenols extracted from the olive can effectively counteract serum free radicals’ formation caused by chronic alcohol intake, contrasting…
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Epidemiological data suggest that moderate red wine consumption reduces cardiovascular mortality and the incidence of diabetes. However, whether these effects are due to ethanol or to non-alcoholic components of red wine still remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of moderate consumption of red wine, dealcoholized red wine, and gin on glucose metabolism and the lipid profile. METHODS: Sixty-seven men at high cardiovascular risk were randomized in a crossover trial. After a run-in period, all received each of red wine (30 g alcohol/d), the equivalent amount of dealcoholized red wine, and gin (30 g alcohol/d) for 4 week periods, in a randomized order. Fasting plasma glucose and insulin, homeostasis model assessment…
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