Phenolic compounds

 

Wine contains phenolic compounds (polyphenols) which give wine its characteristic colour and flavour and are produced by plants in response to fungal infection, ultraviolet light, and various chemical and physical stressors, especially during ripening. They are extracted from the seeds and skins of grapes during fermentation of winemaking, when the juice is in contact with the grape skins and seeds. The amount of polyphenols in red wine is generally greater than white wine because the red juice has longer contact with the grape skins during fermentation enabling more phenolic substances to be extracted into the red juice.

There is evidence that certain polyphenols, such as resveratrol, anthocyanins, flavonols and catechins in wine provide health benefits. Furthermore, rather than polyphenols themselves, their metabolites might be the real key players in cardiovascular and cancer protection. Researchers have shown that these polyphenols in wine act as antioxidants and are five times more potent than the benchmark antioxidant, vitamin E. These antioxidants are believed to reduce the damage caused by the body's free radicals (toxic waste products) which contribute to causing degenerative diseases in the body such as cancer, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and ageing.

The polyphenols may also aid in inhibiting the oxidative transformation of ‘bad’ LDL cholesterol and thus, preventing the accumulation of this oxidised LDL cholesterol in the artery wall which eventually could block the blood flow and cause a heart attack or stroke.

These findings support the overwhelming and still growing body of scientific research indicating that moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages is associated with lower levels of coronary heart disease as well as with better health and lower mortality, especially when consumed in combination with
a healthy diet.

 

The above summary provides an overview of the topic, for more details and specific questions, please refer to the articles in the database.

 

Following an ever-increasing tendency to underline the detrimental effects of alcoholic beverages on human health, wine consumption has also recorded a steady decrease. This is despite multiple beneficial effects on health demonstrated by research. This review presents the latest information regarding the effects of wine on human health. While the potential detrimental effect of alcohol is not disregarded, but acknowledged where science clearly demonstrated a negative impact, potential beneficial effects are also presented and discussed. Aside from alcohol, wine contains other compounds which have been shown to serve as antioxidants and anti-blood clotting agents or metabolic signaling molecules, with anti-proliferative, chemoprotective, immunomodulating actions. Accordingly, light to moderate but not heavy wine consumption can complement other dietary effects on human health.…
Resveratrol is a natural non-flavonoid polyphenol found in red wine, which has numerous pharmacological properties including anti-stress and antidepressant-like abilities. However, whether the antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects of resveratrol are related to the inhibition of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) and its subtypes remains unknown. The same holds true for the subsequent cAMP-dependent pathway. The first set of studies investigated whether resveratrol exhibited neuroprotective effects against corticosterone-induced cell lesion as well as its underlying mechanism. We found that 100muM corticosterone induced PDE2A, PDE3B, PDE4A, PDE4D, PDE10 and PDE11 expression in HT-22cells, which results in significant cell lesion. However, treatment with resveratrol increased cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. These effects seem related to the inhibition of PDE4D, as evidenced by…
BACKGROUND: The health-promoting and disease-limiting abilities of resveratrol, a natural polyphenol, has led to considerable interest in understanding the mechanisms of its therapeutic actions. The polyphenolic rings of resveratrol enable it to react with and detoxify otherwise injurious oxidants. Whilst the protective actions of resveratrol are commonly ascribed to its antioxidant activity, here we show that this is a misconception. METHODS: The ability of resveratrol to oxidise cyclic guanosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase 1alpha (PKG1alpha) was assessed in isolated rat aortic smooth muscle cells, and the mechanism of action of this polyphenol characterised using in vitro experiments, mass spectrometry and electron paramagnetic resonance. The blood pressure of wild-type and C42S knock-in mice was assessed using implanted telemetry probes. Mice were made…
Wine, a widely consumed beverage, comprises several biophenols that promote health. Flavonoids, majorly present in red wine, have been shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and immunomodulatory activities. Regular consumption of red wine (100 mL/day) is estimated to provide an average of 88 mg of flavonoids, whereas recent epidemiological studies indicate that wine is one of the major sources of flavonoid intake amongst wine lovers in European countries (providing an average intake of 291(-)374 mg/day of flavonoids). In addition to being antioxidants, in vitro studies suggest that flavonoids also have anti-allergic activities that inhibit IgE synthesis, activation of mast cells and basophils or other inflammatory cells, and production of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines. Furthermore, they affect the differentiation of naive…
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