General Health

Moderate wine drinkers have a lower risk to die from any cause (lower total  mortality risk) than those who abstain or drink heavily. This widely accepted association is known as the J-curve. This J-curve is attributable to the beneficial effect on cardiovascular health which compensates the negative effects of some cancers resulting in a lower risk to die from any possible cause. The relative risk of dying is lowest among light to moderate drinkers and increased among abstainers. However, the risk increases dramatically with each drink above moderation. Thus, while one or two glasses can be considered “good for your health”, drinking more than what guidelines suggest will not provide more benefits, only more harm.

 

If consumed in excess, alcoholic beverages increase the exposure to a wide range of risk factors whereby the risk rises with the amount of alcohol consumed. Thus, it is crucial to prevent abusive consumption. Alcohol abuse is associated with a range of long-term chronic diseases that reduce the quality of life. These include hypertension, cardiovascular problems, cirrhosis of the liver, alcohol dependence, various forms of cancer, alcohol-related brain damage and a range of other problems. Not only the amount of alcohol but also the drinking patterns are important. Findings from a meta analysis support results from other studies that binge drinking is detrimental to heart health. The authors concluded that it is best for drinkers to avoid binge drinking -- not only because of the possible heart effects, but also because of more immediate risks, like accidents and violence.

 

In addition to health issues resulting from excessive alcohol consumption, there are social consequences, both for the drinker and for others in the community. The consequences include harm to family members (including children), to friends and colleagues as well as to bystanders and strangers.

 

The above summary provides an overview of the topic, for more details and specific questions, please refer to the articles in the database.

 

 

Harmful alcohol use is a leading cause of premature death and is associated with age-related disease. Biological ageing is highly variable between individuals and may deviate from chronological ageing, suggesting that biomarkers of biological ageing (derived from DNA methylation or brain structural measures) may be clinically relevant. Here, we investigated the relationships between alcohol phenotypes and both brain and DNA methylation age estimates. First, using data from UK Biobank and Generation Scotland, we tested the association between alcohol consumption (units/week) or hazardous use (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test [AUDIT] scores) and accelerated brain and epigenetic ageing in 20,258 and 8051 individuals, respectively. Second, we used Mendelian randomisation (MR) to test for a causal effect of alcohol consumption levels and alcohol…
This review aims at summarizing updated evidence on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk associated with consumption of specific food items to substantiate dietary strategies for atherosclerosis prevention. A systematic search on PubMed was performed to identify meta-analyses of cohort studies and RCTs with CVD outcomes. The evidence is highly concordant in showing that, for the healthy adult population, low consumption of salt and foods of animal origin, and increased intake of plant-based foods-whole grains, fruits, vegetables, legumes, and nuts-are linked with reduced atherosclerosis risk. The same applies for the replacement of butter and other animal/tropical fats with olive oil and other unsaturated-fat-rich oil. Although the literature reviewed overall endorses scientific society dietary recommendations, some relevant novelties emerge. With regard to meat,…
The influence of body mass or metabolic capacity on the association between alcohol consumption and lower risks of developing chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not fully elucidated. We examined whether the body mass index (BMI) affects the association between drinking alcohol and CKD. We defined CKD as an estimated glomerular filtration rate decline /= 1+). Participants were 11,175 Japanese individuals aged 40-74 years without baseline CKD who underwent annual health checkups. Daily alcohol consumption at baseline was estimated using a questionnaire, and the participants were categorized as "infrequent (occasionally, rarely or never)," "light (/= 40 g/day)." Over a median 5-year observation period, 936 participants developed…
Although the detrimental effects of heavy drinking in terms of health are well-documented in the literature, there are inconsistent findings regarding the safety of light-to-moderate alcohol consumption. In particular, little is still known about the consumption of specific alcoholic beverages in combination with dietary habits and lifestyle, which in turn could influence health status. Thus, the aim of this review is to summarise and critically evaluate the evidence of a relationship between preference for alcoholic beverages and consumer dietary and lifestyle habits. A literature search retrieved 3,887 articles. By removing duplicates and articles which were not relevant, the final number of articles was 26. The adherence to a healthier diet and lifestyle was generally observed in light-to-moderate alcohol consumers, especially…
Our objective was to investigate longitudinal associations between alcohol drinking and body mass index (BMI). Alcohol drinking (exposure), BMI (outcome), smoking habit, occupation, longstanding illness, and leisure time physical activity (potential confounders) were assessed at ages 30, 34, 42, and 46 in the 1970 British Birth Cohort Study. Multilevel models were used to cope with the problem of correlated observations. There were 15,708 observations in 5931 men and 14,077 observations in 5656 women. Drinking was associated with BMI in men. According to the regression coefficients, BMI was expected to increase by 0.36 (95% confidence interval: 0.11, 0.60) kg/m(2) per year in men who drank once a week and by 0.40 (0.14, 0.15) kg/m(2) per year in men who drank most…
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