Diabetes

Diabetes mellitus - often referred to simply as diabetes - is a condition in which the body either does not produce any insulin (Type 1) or not enough insulin. Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas to overcome the underlying insulin resistance of the cells in the body (Type 2). Insulin enables glucose (sugar) to enter the cells in order to be stored as glycogen or oxidized for energy. These defects cause glucose to accumulate in the blood, inevitably leading to serious complications. The positive effects of moderate wine and other alcoholic beverage consumption are only relevant for individuals with type-2 diabetes.

 

Type 2 Diabetes

 

The underlying defect is insulin resistance due to obesity and lack of exercise. Insulin resistance means that the cells do not respond to the insulin signal. In return, the pancreas tries to overcome this resistance by increasing the insulin output which enables the glucose to enter the cells. Once the beta-cells cannot compensate the high demand of insulin for proper function, the glucose will remain in the blood leading to an increased blood sugar level. Approximately 90% of all cases of diabetes worldwide are type 2.

 

In 2010, the International Diabetes Federation estimated the global prevalence of diabetes mellitus at 6.6% in adults. Type-2 diabetes is now one of the most common non-communicable diseases in the world and a major cause of premature illness and death in most countries. To prevent diabetic complications and premature death, patients are recommended to adopt a healthy lifestyle.  

 

Evidence from randomized-controlled intervention studies as well as from population studies have demonstrated that light to moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages will improve insulin sensitivity in insulin resistant people. Accordingly, large prospective studies have shown a reduced risk for developing the metabolic syndrome (MS, name for a group of risk factors that raise the risk for heart disease, stroke and diabetes. A metabolic syndrome exists when at least 3 of the following risk factors are present: overweight, high triglyceride level, elevated plasma glucose level,  low HDL cholesterol level and high blood pressure) . A moderate intake of  wine as well as other alcoholic beverages exerts a beneficial effect on MS. In addition, large population studies suggest that light to moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages is associated with a lower diabetic risk than abstaining or heavy drinking, independently of the type of alcoholic beverage consumed. Meta-analyses reported a J-shaped relationship for men and women with a reduced risk for a moderate intake of alcoholic beverages and an increased risk for more than 50-60 g/d. With regards to wine and diabetes, most studies found  beneficial effects. But not only the risk of developing type 2 diabetes is decreased with moderate drinking; it may also reduce CHD and CVD mortality in diabetics as well as potential cardiac complications relating to diabetes. This is especially important considering that coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death among individuals with type-2 diabetes, who also have a 4-fold increased risk of having a heart attack or stroke. Research indicates that this risk decreases considerably when they consume wine moderately with meals.

 

Considering the world-wide epidemic of type 2 diabetes which is expected to rise even further and is associated with major health care costs, preventing diabetes is a major public health issue. It seems that drinking wine in moderation could  help reduce type 2 diabetes and thereby contribute to public health.


The above summary provides an overview of the topic, for more details and specific questions, please refer to the articles in the database.

 

 

 

 

BACKGROUND: The U-shaped relationship between alcohol consumption and diabetes mellitus was observed among western populations. However, few studies have systematically evaluated the association in Chinese. We aimed to investigate the associations of alcohol consumption with diabetes mellitus and impaired fasting glycemia (IFG) among middle-aged and elderly Chinese. METHODS: We examined 1,458 men and 1,831 women aged 50 to 70 from Beijing and Shanghai China in a cross-sectional survey. Fasting glucose, adipokines and markers of inflammation were measured. Macronutrients and alcohol consumption were assessed with standardized questionnaires. RESULTS: Compared with abstainers, alcohol consumption was associated with a decreased risk of having diabetes mellitus in women (OR: 0.41, 95%CI: 0.22-0.78) after controlling for socio-demographic factors, physical activity, smoking, family income, family history…
BACKGROUND: The association between body-mass-index (BMI), alcohol consumption and their joint effect in increasing the risk of elevated serum alanine (ALT) and aspartate (AST) is unclear in older community-dwelling adults. AIM: To determine the association between alcohol, BMI, and their combined effect with serum ALT and AST in older community-dwelling adults in the United States. METHODS: A cross-sectional, population-based study in participants (n = 2364) from the Rancho Bernardo Study (54% women; mean age: 70 years, BMI: 25 kg/m(2), alcohol users: 63%) who attended a research visit in 1984-87. BMI was recorded by a trained nurse and alcohol use ascertained by a validated questionnaire. Odds-ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of elevated serum ALT and AST (defined as >…
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the joint association between glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and alcohol intake with type 2 diabetes (T2D). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine whether alcohol intake alters the associations between carbohydrate quality (GI) or quality and quantity (GL) and T2D incidence in women. DESIGN: Participants from the Nurses' Health Study who were free of T2D, cardiovascular disease, or cancer (n = 81,827) at baseline in 1980 were followed for 26 y. Cumulative averages of GI, GL, total carbohydrates, and alcohol intake were calculated every 2-4 y from validated food-frequency questionnaires. Cox proportional hazard models were used to adjust for covariates. RESULTS: We documented 6950 cases of T2D during follow-up. After adjustment…
Although moderate alcohol intake in diabetic Caucasians is associated with a reduction in coronary heart disease mortality, no study in Japanese with diabetes has examined the association between alcohol intake and mortality outcomes. We analyzed the relationship between alcohol intake and all-cause and cause-specific mortality using the database from NIPPON DATA80. At the baseline in 1980, data on history, lifestyle, and physical examinations were collected on study participants aged 30 years and older from randomly selected areas in Japan. After excluding participants with comorbidities, we followed 4,018 male participants (3,614 nondiabetics, 195 with impaired glucose tolerance and 209 diabetic) for 19 years. During the 19 years of follow-up, there were 990 deaths; 328 were from cardiovascular disease and 157 from…
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a risk factor for the development of insulin resistance, which can eventually lead to type-2 diabetes. Alcohol consumption is a protective factor against insulin resistance, and thus protects against the development of type-2 diabetes. The mechanism by which alcohol protects against the development of type-2 diabetes is not well known. To determine the mechanism by which alcohol improves insulin sensitivity, we fed water or alcohol to lean, control, and obese mice. The aim of this study was to determine whether alcohol consumption and body weights affect overlapping metabolic pathways and to identify specific target genes that are regulated in these pathways. METHOD: Adipose tissue dysfunction has been associated with the development of type-2 diabetes. We assessed possible…
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