03 June 2019 In Cancer

Alcohol consumption has been established to be a major factor in the development and progress of cancer. Genetic polymorphisms of alcohol-metabolism genes result in differences between individuals in exposure to acetaldehyde, leading to possible carcinogenic effects. Arg47His (rs1229984 G > A) in ADH1B have been frequently studied for its potential effect on carcinogenesis. However, the findings are as yet inconclusive. To gain a more precise estimate of this potential association, we conducted a meta-analysis including 66 studies from 64 articles with 31999 cases and 50964 controls. The pooled results indicated that ADH1B Arg47His polymorphism is significantly associated with the decreased risk of overall cancer (homozygous model, odds ratio (OR) = 0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.49-0.77; heterozygous model, OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.60-0.84; recessive model, OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.76-0.91; dominant model, OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.53-0.72; and allele comparison, OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.75-0.89). Stratified analysis by cancer type and ethnicity showed that a decreased risk was associated with esophageal cancer and head and neck cancer amongst Asians. In conclusion, our meta-analysis suggested that ADH1B Arg47His polymorphism was significantly associated with decreased overall cancer risk. These findings need further validation in large multicenter investigations.

03 June 2019 In Cancer

PURPOSE: It is unknown whether alcohol intake is associated with the risk of lethal (metastatic or fatal) prostate cancer. We examine (1) whether alcohol intake among men at risk of prostate cancer is associated with diagnosis of lethal prostate cancer and (2) whether intake among men with nonmetastatic prostate cancer is associated with metastasis or death.

METHODS: This prospective cohort study uses the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986 to 2012). Our analysis of alcohol intake among men at risk of prostate cancer included 47,568 cancer-free men. Our analysis of alcohol intake among men with prostate cancer was restricted to 5,182 men diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer during follow-up. We examine the association of total alcohol, red and white wine, beer, and liquor with lethal prostate cancer and death. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs.

RESULTS: Alcohol drinkers had a lower risk of lethal prostate cancer (any v none: HR, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.71 to 0.99]) without a dose-response relationship. Total alcohol intake among patients with prostate cancer was not associated with progression to lethal prostate cancer (any v none: HR, 0.99 [95% CI, 0.57 to 1.72]), whereas moderate red wine intake was associated with a lower risk (any v none: HR, 0.50 [95% CI, 0.29 to 0.86]; P trend = .05). Compared with none, 15 to 30 g/d of total alcohol after prostate cancer diagnosis was associated with a lower risk of death (HR, 0.71 [95% CI, 0.50 to 1.00]), as was red wine (any v none: HR, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.57 to 0.97]; P trend = .007).

CONCLUSION: Cancer-free men who consumed alcohol had a slightly lower risk of lethal prostate cancer compared with abstainers. Among men with prostate cancer, red wine was associated with a lower risk of progression to lethal disease. These observed associations merit additional study but provide assurance that moderate alcohol consumption is safe for patients with prostate cancer.

28 March 2019 In Cancer

BACKGROUND: Although cancer has become one of the leading health burdens, to the authors' knowledge, evidence regarding its relationship with a healthy lifestyle in the Chinese population remains limited.

METHODS: The authors evaluated the association between clustering of healthy lifestyle factors and cancer risk using 3 prospective cohort studies with 101,208 Chinese adults from the general population. Hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidential intervals (95% CIs) related to healthy lifestyle factors were calculated using Cox proportional hazard models, and population-attributable risk percentages were estimated further.

RESULTS: The results demonstrated that each additional healthy lifestyle factor was associated with a 6% (range, 3%-9%) lower risk of overall cancer. Compared with having none to 3 healthy lifestyle factors, HRs related to adherence to all 6 healthy lifestyle factors were 0.78 (95% CI, 0.60-1.02) and 0.82 (95% CI, 0.67-1.00), respectively, for men and women. It was estimated that approximately 18.4% and 2.3%, respectively, of overall cancer cases for men and women were attributable to nonadherence to all 6 healthy lifestyle factors.

CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study indicate that adherence to clustering of healthy lifestyle factors was associated with a reduced risk of cancer incidence among Chinese adults. Greater efforts urgently are needed to promote the adoption of multiple healthy lifestyle behaviors to reduce the increasing burden of cancer.

26 February 2019 In Cancer

PURPOSE: Breast cancer (BC) risk prediction allows systematic identification of individuals at highest and lowest risk. We extend the Breast and Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm (BOADICEA) risk model to incorporate the effects of polygenic risk scores (PRS) and other risk factors (RFs).

METHODS: BOADICEA incorporates the effects of truncating variants in BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, CHEK2, and ATM; a PRS based on 313 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) explaining 20% of BC polygenic variance; a residual polygenic component accounting for other genetic/familial effects; known lifestyle/hormonal/reproductive RFs; and mammographic density, while allowing for missing information.

RESULTS: Among all factors considered, the predicted UK BC risk distribution is widest for the PRS, followed by mammographic density. The highest BC risk stratification is achieved when all genetic and lifestyle/hormonal/reproductive/anthropomorphic factors are considered jointly. With all factors, the predicted lifetime risks for women in the UK population vary from 2.8% for the 1st percentile to 30.6% for the 99th percentile, with 14.7% of women predicted to have a lifetime risk of >/=17-<30% (moderate risk according to National Institute for Health and Care Excellence [NICE] guidelines) and 1.1% a lifetime risk of >/=30% (high risk).

CONCLUSION: This comprehensive model should enable high levels of BC risk stratification in the general population and women with family history, and facilitate individualized, informed decision-making on prevention therapies and screening.

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