21 February 2020 In Dementia

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most threatening neurodegenerative disease, is characterized by the loss of memory and language function, an unbalanced perception of space, and other cognitive and physical manifestations.

The pathology of AD is characterized by neuronal loss and the extensive distribution of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). The role of environment and the diet in AD is being actively studied, and nutrition is one of the main factors playing a prominent role in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases.

In this context, the relationship between dementia and wine use/abuse has received increased research interest, with varying and often conflicting results.

Scope and Approach: With this review, we aimed to critically summarize the main relevant studies to clarify the relationship between wine drinking and AD, as well as how frequency and/or amount of drinking may influence the effects.

Key Findings and Conclusions: Overall, based on the interpretation of various studies, no definitive results highlight if light to moderate alcohol drinking is detrimental to cognition and dementia, or if alcohol intake could reduce risk of developing AD.

21 February 2020 In General Health

BACKGROUND: Problem drinking carries significant health burdens, including an increased risk of hypertension. The effect of chronic alcohol intake on blood pressure (BP) in women is understudied and poorly understood.

OBJECTIVES: We sought to examine the relationships between drinking habits and BP in hypertensive women. METHODS: We analyzed drinking habits in 113 women followed in the Brigham and Women's Hospital Hypertension Clinic for at least one year.

RESULTS: Among these women with well-controlled hypertension, baseline diastolic BP was significantly lower in moderate drinkers compared with women who rarely or never drank. Changes in both systolic and diastolic BP over 12 months showed a significant negative association with changes in percent drinking days. In contrast, there was a trend toward higher baseline systolic BP among those women who consumed more drinks per drinking day.

CONCLUSIONS: Among these women with controlled hypertension, our data failed to demonstrate an association between drinking beyond recommended limits and higher disease burden. These findings parallel the widely reported difference between drinking frequency, associated with a host of positive health outcomes, and drinking intensity, associated with negative outcomes. Novel to this report is an observed reduction in blood pressure over the one-year follow-up period accompanying an increased drinking frequency in treated hypertensive women. Cautions include the suggestion that a greater number of drinks per drinking day was associated with higher baseline pressure. These data imply that drinking within sensible limits has no negative impact on chronic hypertension. In fact, for women with well-controlled hypertension, such a habit may impart benefit

24 January 2020 In Dementia

Long-term alcohol abuse is associated with poorer cognitive performance. However, the associations between light and moderate drinking and cognitive performance are less clear. We assessed this association via cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses in a sample of 702 Dutch students.

At baseline, alcohol consumption was assessed using questionnaires and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) across four weeks ('Wave 1'). Subsequently, cognitive performance, including memory, planning, and reasoning, was assessed at home using six standard cognition tests presented through an online platform. A year later, 436 students completed the four weeks of EMA and online cognitive testing ('Wave 2').

In both waves, there was no association between alcohol consumption and cognitive performance. Further, alcohol consumption during Wave 1 was not related to cognitive performance at Wave 2. In addition, EMA-data-based drinking patterns, which varied widely between persons but were relatively consistent over time within persons, were also not associated with cognitive performance.

Post-hoc analyses of cognitive performance revealed higher within-person variance scores (from Wave 1 to Wave 2) than between-person variance scores (both Wave 1 and Wave 2). In conclusion, no association was observed between alcohol consumption and cognitive performance in a large Dutch student sample. However, the online cognitive tests performed at home may not have been sensitive enough to pick up differences in cognitive performance associated with alcohol consumption.

24 October 2019 In Drinking Patterns

OBJECTIVES: To investigate how various alcohol-drinking behaviours are associated with sociodemographics, lifestyle factors and health status indicators in Brazil. STUDY DESIGN: This study is based on a household survey of 53,034 adults aged 18 + years from all 26 Brazilian capitals and the Federal District conducted in 2017.

METHODS: Sex-stratified relationships were modelled using logistic regressions and controlled for capital-specific effects. Main outcome measures included regular alcohol use, weekly alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking (HED), frequent HED and drinking and driving.

RESULTS: Overall (unadjusted) prevalence of regular alcohol consumption is 41%. Among drinkers, approximately 70% drink on a weekly basis, and 46% are heavy episodic drinkers. Among this latter group, close to 44% are frequent heavy episodic drinkers (i.e. at least four times in a month). Among regular drinkers who also are drivers, the prevalence of drinking and driving is 28%. These prevalences are considerably higher in men. The relationships investigated vary by drinking behaviour and sex, with some factors consistently associated with various behaviours, when present. Population (men or women) at greatest risk include (largely) younger individuals (up to 700% increase in odds) who are single or divorced, those who are less health conscious and watch television or use mobile devices during leisure time 4 + hours per day and do not have diabetes.

For drinking and driving, the additional risk factors include speeding behaviour, the use of mobile devices while driving and HED. Education, race/ethnicity and other health status indicators are differently associated with various drinking behaviours. For women, in particular, the results also show differences in odds of up to 360% and 1430% across cities for frequent HED and drinking and driving, respectively. Similarly, indigenous women are at greatest risk of weekly alcohol use and HED.

CONCLUSIONS: HED and drinking and driving are problematic, as the association with other factors suggests a clustering of risky behaviours that may exacerbate the consequences of drinking behaviours.

Page 2 of 515

Disclaimer

The authors have taken reasonable care in ensuring the accuracy of the information herein at the time of publication and are not responsible for any errors or omissions. Read more on our disclaimer and Privacy Policy.