03 June 2019 In Cardiovascular System

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The interrelationship between alcohol consumption and depression is complex, and the direction of the association is unclear. We investigated whether alcohol consumption influences the risk of depression while accounting for this potential bidirectionality.

METHODS: A total of 10 441 individuals participated in the PART study in 1998-2000, 8622 in 2001-2003, and 5228 in 2010. Participants answered questions on their alcohol consumption, symptoms of depression, childhood adversity, and sociodemographic, socioeconomic, psychosocial, and lifestyle factors. A total of 5087 participants provided repeated information on alcohol consumption. We used marginal structural models to analyze the association between alcohol consumption and depression while controlling for previous alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms and other time-varying confounders.

RESULTS: Non-drinkers had a higher depression risk than light drinkers (</=7 drinks/week) (risk ratio: 1.7; 95% confidence interval 1.3-2.1). Consumers of seven-fourteen drinks/week had a depression risk similar to that of light drinkers. Hazardous drinking was associated with a higher risk of depression than non-hazardous alcohol consumption (risk ratio: 1.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.4-2.4).

CONCLUSION: Light and moderate alcohol consumption and non-hazardous drinking were associated with the lowest risk of subsequent depression after accounting for potential bidirectional effects. Hazardous drinking increased the risk of depression.

03 June 2019 In Cardiovascular System

BACKGROUNDS: Views on the relationship between alcohol consumption and stroke risk remain controversial. Moreover, data on cumulative alcohol intake are limited. We examined the potential impact of cumulative alcohol consumption on the risk of total stroke and its subtypes in men.

METHODS: This prospective study included 23,433 men from the Kailuan Study. Cumulative alcohol consumption was taken as the primary exposure by calculating self-reported alcohol consumption from three consecutive examinations (in 2006, 2008, and 2010). The first occurrence of stroke was confirmed by reviewing medical records from 2010 to 2016. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to analyze the data.

RESULTS: During the 5.9 +/- 0.8 years of follow-up, 678 total strokes were identified, including 595 ischemic stroke (IS), 90 intracerebral hemorrhage and 19 subarachnoid hemorrhage cases. The adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of total stroke for light, moderate and heavy cumulative alcohol consumption were 1.23 (1.01-1.51), 1.49 (1.13-1.97), and 1.50 (1.21-1.86), respectively, compared with those of nondrinkers. The results were similar for IS. Cumulative alcohol consumption was not associated with intracerebral hemorrhage risk (hazard ratio 1.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.74-2.08).

CONCLUSIONS: Cumulative alcohol consumption is an independent risk factor of total stroke and IS in men in a community-based cohort. Even light alcohol intake increases the risk of total stroke and IS.

28 March 2019 In General Health
Studies indicate an inverse association between moderate alcohol consumption and chronic inflammatory diseases; however, the association between alcohol consumption and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) incidence has not been widely studied. We investigated the associations of total alcohol consumption and intake of specific alcoholic beverages with risk of COPD in a population-based prospective cohort study, the Cohort of Swedish Men (n = 44,254). Alcohol consumption was assessed with a self-administered questionnaire in 1997. During follow-up (1998-2014), 2,177 COPD cases were ascertained. Moderate alcohol consumption was associated with the lowest risk of COPD. A J-shaped association was observed for ethanol consumption (P for nonlinearity = 0.003) and beer consumption (P for nonlinearity < 0.001); for wine consumption, a U-shaped association was observed (P for nonlinearity < 0.001). Defining a "standard drink" as 12 g of ethanol, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios were 0.77 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.66, 0.90) and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.81, 1.05) for beer consumption of 4.1-6.0 and >6.0 standard drinks/week (SDW) versus <1.0 SDW, respectively; 0.80 (95% CI: 0.69, 0.93) and 1.00 (95% CI: 0.83, 1.21) for wine consumption of 2.0-4.0 and >4.0 SDW versus <1.0 SDW, respectively; and 1.10 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.24) and 1.20 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.44) for liquor consumption of 2.0-4.0 and >4.0 SDW versus <1.0 SDW, respectively. In conclusion, our findings suggest that moderate beer and wine consumption, but not liquor consumption, may decrease risk of COPD. Additional studies are needed to confirm these associations.
26 February 2019 In Drinking & Eating Patterns

Low-risk thresholds for alcohol use differ across various national guidelines. To assess the novel WHO risk drinking levels in light of alcohol-sensitive common laboratory tests, we analysed biomarkers of liver status, inflammation and lipid profiles from a population-based survey of individuals classified to abstainers and different WHO risk drinking levels defined in terms of mean alcohol consumption per day. The study included 22,327 participants aged 25-74 years from the National FINRISK Study. Data on alcohol use, health status, diet, body weight and lifestyle (smoking, coffee consumption and physical activity) were recorded from structured interviews. Alcohol data from self-reports covering the past 12 months were used to categorize the participants into subgroups of abstainers and WHO risk drinking categories representing low, moderate, high and very high risk drinkers. Serum liver enzymes (GGT, ALT), C-reactive protein (CRP) and lipid profiles were measured using standard laboratory techniques. Alcohol risk category was roughly linearly related with the occurrence of elevated values for GGT, ALT and CRP. Alcohol drinking also significantly influenced the incidence of abnormalities in serum lipids. Significantly higher odds for abnormal GGT, ALT and altered lipid profiles remained in alcohol drinkers even after adjustment for age, waist circumference, physical inactivity, smoking and coffee consumption. A more systematic use of laboratory tests during treatment of individuals classified to WHO risk drinking categories may improve the assessment of alcohol-related health risks. Follow-ups of biomarker responses may also prove to be useful in health interventions aimed at reducing alcohol consumption.

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